Baker K.S.,University of Liverpool |
Baker K.S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute |
Campos J.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas |
Pichel M.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas |
And 29 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2017
Objectives: Shigella sonnei is a globally important diarrhoeal pathogen tracked through the surveillance network PulseNet Latin America and Caribbean (PNLA&C), which participates in PulseNet International. PNLA&C laboratories use common molecular techniques to track pathogens causing foodborne illness. We aimed to demonstrate the possibility and advantages of transitioning to whole genome sequencing (WGS) for surveillance within existing networks across a continent where S. sonnei is endemic. Methods: We applied WGS to representative archive isolates of S. sonnei (n = 323) from laboratories in nine PNLA&C countries to generate a regional phylogenomic reference for S. sonnei and put this in the global context. We used this reference to contextualise 16 . S. sonnei from three Argentinian outbreaks, using locally generated sequence data. Assembled genome sequences were used to predict antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes and identify AMR determinants. Results: S. sonnei isolates clustered in five Latin American sublineages in the global phylogeny, with many (46%, 149 of 323) belonging to previously undescribed sublineages. Predicted multidrug resistance was common (77%, 249 of 323), and clinically relevant differences in AMR were found among sublineages. The regional overview showed that Argentinian outbreak isolates belonged to distinct sublineages and had different epidemiologic origins. Conclusions: Latin America contains novel genetic diversity of S. sonnei that is relevant on a global scale and commonly exhibits multidrug resistance. Retrospective passive surveillance with WGS has utility for informing treatment, identifying regionally epidemic sublineages and providing a framework for interpretation of prospective, locally sequenced outbreaks. © 2017.
Jayaratne R.,University of East London |
Mendoza E.,Ciudad University |
Silva R.,Ciudad University |
Gutierrez F.,Ciudad University
Coastal Structures and Solutions to Coastal Disasters 2015: Resilient Coastal Communities - Proceedings of the Coastal Structures and Solutions to Coastal Disasters Joint Conference 2015 | Year: 2015
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed to understand the occurrence of scour in front of a vertical seawall. A single wave steepened by an artificial slope that breaks on the seawall or as close as possible to it was generated. For this purpose, a physical model was constructed and placed in a 2D wave flume where a focused wave group was generated at the toe of the fore slope. Three distinctive sediment types for the slope were tested (sand and two gravel sizes) and the experimental program included tests with different slope angles, relative submergence, still water depths and energy spectra (Jonswap and Top-Hat). Empirical models for the prediction of scour as a function of the maximum wave height at toe of the slope were obtained for the sand and smallest gravel slopes. © 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Montoya-Rodriguez A.,Ciudad University |
Montoya-Rodriguez A.,Urbana University |
Gomez-Favela M.A.,Ciudad University |
Reyes-Moreno C.,Ciudad University |
And 2 more authors.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2015
Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) is a pseudocereal with higher protein concentration than most cereal grains. Enzymatic hydrolysis and food processing could produce biopeptides from amaranth proteins; however, there is limited information about the bioactivity of peptides from amaranth proteins. The objective of this comprehensive review was to determine bioactive peptide sequences in amaranth proteins that may prevent cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. Amaranth proteins, reported in UniProt database, were evaluated for potential bioactive peptide using BIOPEP database. The 15 main proteins present in amaranth seed are 11S globulin, 7S globulin, α-amylase inhibitor, trypsin inhibitor, antimicrobial proteins, nonspecific lipid-transfer-protein-1, superoxide dismutase, ring-zinc finger protein, prosystemin, amaranth albumin 1, glucose-1-phosphate adenyltransferase, glucosyltransferase, polyamine oxidase, granule-bound starch synthase 1, and acetolactate synthase. All proteins showed high occurrence frequencies of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides (A = 0.161 to 0.362), as well as of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (A = 0.003 to 0.087). Other proteins showed antioxidative (A = 0.012 to 0.063) and glucose uptake-stimulating activity (A = 0.023 to 0.042), and also antithrombotic (A = 0.002 to 0.031) and anticancer sequences (A = 0.001 to 0.042). The results of this study support the concept that amaranth grain could be part of a "healthy" diet and thereby prevent chronic human diseases. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Capello S.,CONICET |
Marchese M.,CONICET |
Marchese M.,Ciudad University |
de Wysiecki M.L.,CONICET
Zoological Studies | Year: 2012
A dietary analysis is a frequent 1st step in studying an animal's ecology, because its diet directly reflects resource use and can provide insights into habitat utilization and competitive interactions. Little is known concerning orthopteran species that inhabit moist or wet environments, because such species do not usually become pests. We hypothesized that aquatic orthopterans feed on only a few macrophytes, and they show trophic niche overlap. Feeding habits of 7 orthopteran species associated with macrophytes, the botanical composition of the diets of these insects, and their trophic niche breadth and overlap were analyzed from the Middle Paraná River, Argentina. The diet composition by a microanalysis of feces under an optical microscope and the frequency of occurrence of each plant, food niche breadth, niche overlap, and food specialization level of every species were determined. Only Paulinia acuminata, Marellia remipes, and Cornops aquaticum exclusively consumed aquatic plants. The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the unique macrophyte consumed by all orthopteran species studied, although in different proportions. The greatest trophic niche breadth was shown by Coryacris angustipennis, and the highest Berger-Parker index value was found for C. aquaticum, which also showed high specificity. The species C. aquaticum, C. angustipennis, Conocephalus sp., and Scudderia sp. showed niche overlap; however, they can live in the same habitats because resources are very abundant. This is the 1st analysis of the diet compositions of these species (except C. aquaticum), and it is important information to explain orthopteran assemblages associated with macrophytes in this Argentine river.
Barba Pingarron A.,Ciudad University |
Hernandez M.A.G.,Ciudad University |
Covelo V.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Valdez N.R.,Ciudad University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014
Copper and brass samples were prepared for the hot dip aluminized process by using different parameters of time and temperatures. The obtained layers were characterized by employing the following techniques: the microhardness test, metallographic analysis, electrochemical tests to evaluate corrosion properties and scanning electron microscopy with EDS. Corrosion properties provided by the hot dip aluminized process exhibits temperature and time dependence of immersion in the molten metal. The aluminum content in the hot dip aluminized coating on brass showed that when the Al concentration increases, an improvement of the corrosion properties and of hardness is obtained. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.