Cisneros B.E.J.,Ciudad Universitaria
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2011
This paper is a review of the international literature concerning both the positive and negative effects on the environment and public health of the use of treated or non-treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. It includes not only physical but also social and economic aspects. The extent of the use of treated and non-treated wastewater for agriculture is discussed along with its drivers. The data clearly show that non-treated wastewater is used more commonly than treated wastewater. This occurs mainly in around urban and peri-urban areas where municipal wastewater is produced that is better suited to this practice. The impacts observed on agricultural production, human health, the quality of the irrigation water, groundwater and surface water sources, food security, animal health, the local economy, reduction of poverty and food exports are presented, considering especially developing countries. These factors are further discussed to gain an understanding of how the practice, if well managed, contributes to sustainable development. Barriers to increasing the reuse of wastewater to irrigate are explained, considering the social perception in both developed and developing countries. The importance of reusing wastewater to reclaim water and nutrients are summarized. The positive and negative impacts resulting from the expected increase in the practice are discussed, together with control measures to obtain maximum benefits. © CAB International 2011.
Crespo F.,Centro Militar Of Criacaballar |
Gosalvez J.,Autonomous University of Madrid |
Gutierrez-Cepeda L.,Ciudad Universitaria |
Serres C.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Johnston S.D.,University of Queensland
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2013
Stallion spermatozoa recovered and examined immediately after colloidal centrifugation resulted in a higher straight-line velocity (VSL) than sperm processed using direct conventional centrifugation (p=0.000), but there was no differences in the progressive motility or sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) as determined by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay. However, when centrifuged spermatozoa were incubated at 37°C for 24h to determine the rate of SDF (r-SDF), a lower r-SDF (p=0.0011) was observed in those sperm recovered after colloidal separation (0.5±0.1%/h) compared to direct (1.2±0.4%/h) or no centrifugation (r-SDF = 1.2 ±0.3%/h). These results confirm that colloidal separation of stallion spermatozoa results in prolonged sperm DNA longevity, but these differences were only apparent following a period of incubation and dynamic assessment. Consequently, we strongly recommend the use of the dynamic form of the SDF assay for evaluating centrifugation and/or other ex vivo procedures, as a single basal assessment of SDF may inadvertently result in a false-positive evaluation of DNA quality. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Auguste A.J.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Lemey P.,Rega Institute for Medical Research |
Bergren N.A.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Giambalvo D.,Ciudad Universitaria |
And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015
Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.
Leff E.,Ciudad Universitaria
Environmental Ethics | Year: 2012
From the beginning of the environmental crisis, a constellation of ecosophies, theories, ideologies, discourses, and narratives have irrupted in the emergent complex ground of environmental philosophy and political ecology. In this non-unifyable field of forces, sociological analysis has been intended to sketch maps and derive typologies to order the different views and standpoints in science, ecological thinking, and environmental ethics so as to guide academic research or political action. From this will to set and settle differences in thought and strategy, a diversity of environmentalisms has emerged; the lines are drawn from North to South, rich to poor, masculine to feminine, naturalism to culturalism. Environmentalisms differentiate their sources, attachments, and derivations from mother theories and their approaches from different disciplines. Thus, the prefix eco- or the adjective environmental are attached to traditional disciplines. Latin American environmental thinking draws its sources from critical philosophical thought; it differs from other systems of thought by a radical epistemological concept of environment; and it acquires its identity from the cultural heritage of its peoples and the ecological potentials of its territories.
Tovar-Hernande B.,Geomare A.C. |
Tovar-Hernande B.,Institute Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia |
Yanez-Rivera B.,Geomare A.C. |
Yanez-Rivera B.,Institute Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia |
Bortolini-Rosales J.L.,Ciudad Universitaria
Marine Biology Research | Year: 2011
The fan worm Branchiomma bairdi has been introduced to the Gulf of California from its original distribution in the Caribbean Sea, and is now a conspicuous component of most benthic communities. Study of reproductive features is essential to understand the dispersion capability of B. bairdi and its invasive potential. Sampling was carried out monthly in the port of Mazatlán during 2009 (23 °12′13″N, 106°24′31.4″’W). Abundance and biomass were measured. Sex and maturity were determined. Gametogenesis and observations on the spawning, fertilization, larval development and brooding are presented. The highest values of abundance (> 2500 worms m-2) and biomass (175 g m-2) occurred during August and September. Mature simultaneous hermaphrodite worms were found continuously throughout the annual cycle as well as asexual forms. In B. bairdi gametogenesis is extra-ovarian. Three posterior thoracic segments and all abdominal segments are involved in the production of gametes. Sperm are ect-aquasperm type (free spawners with external fertilization). Spermatids are grouped in tetrads. Ovules are retained for intra-tubular fertilization. Larval development is lecithotrophic. Embryos are brooded on the collar and branchial crown. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.