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City University London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1894 as the Northampton Institute and became a university when The City University was created by Royal Charter in 1966. The Inns of Court School of Law, which merged with City University in 2001, was established in 1852, making it the university's oldest constituent part.City University has its main campus in the Islington area of central London, with additional campuses in the City of London and the Holborn, Smithfield and Whitechapel areas of London. It is organised into seven Schools, within which there are around 40 academic departments and centres, including the City University Department of Journalism, the Cass Business School and the Inns of Court School of Law .City University had a total income of £178.6 million in 2010/11, of which £8 million was from research grants and contracts. Cass Business school is ranked 2nd in London and top 40 in the world. In 2012 it was ranked 29th in the UK according to the Times Higher Education 'table to tables', 327th in the world according to the QS World University Rankings and is included in Times Higher Education's list of the top 100 universities in the world under 50 years old.City University is a member of the Association of MBAs, EQUIS and Universities UK. Wikipedia.


Crabb D.P.,City University London
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012

Published recommendations suggest three visual field (VF) tests per year are required to identify rapid progression in a newly diagnosed glaucomatous patient over 2 years. This report aims to determine if identification of progression would be improved by clustering tests at the beginning and end of the 2-year period. Computer-simulated "patients" were given a rapid VF (mean deviation [MD]) loss of -2 dB/year with added MD measurement variability. Linear regression of MD against time was used to estimate progression. One group of "patients" was measured every 6 months, another every 4 months, whereas the wait-and-see group were measured either 2 or 3 times at both baseline and at the end of a 2-year period. Stable "patients" (0 dB/year) were generated to examine the effect of the follow-up patterns on false-positive (FP) progression identification. By 2 years, 58% and 82% of rapidly progressing patients were correctly detected using evenly spaced 6- and 4-month VFs, respectively. This power of detection significantly improved to 62% and 95% with the wait-and-see approach (P < 0.001). When compared with evenly spaced VFs, the rate of MD loss was better estimated by the wait-and-see approach, but average detection time was slightly slower. Evenly spaced testing incurred a significantly higher FP rate: up to 5.9% compared with only 0.4% in wait-and-see (P < 0.001). Compared with an evenly spaced follow-up, wait-and-see identifies more "patients" with rapid VF progression with fewer FPs, making it particularly applicable to clinical trials. Modeling experiments, as reported here, are useful for investigating and optimizing follow-up schemes. Source


An exact free vibration analysis of doubly-curved laminated composite shallow shells has been carried out by combining the dynamic stiffness method (DSM) and a higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT). In essence, the HSDT has been exploited to develop first the dynamic stiffness (DS) element matrix and then the global DS matrix of composite cylindrical and spherical shallow shell structures by assembling the individual DS elements. As an essential prerequisite, Hamilton's principle is used to derive the governing differential equations and the related natural boundary conditions. The equations are solved symbolically in an exact sense and the DS matrix is formulated by imposing the natural boundary conditions in algebraic form. The Wittrick-Williams algorithm is used as a solution technique to compute the eigenvalues of the overall DS matrix. The effect of several parameters such as boundary conditions, orthotropic ratio, length-to-thickness ratio, radius-to-length ratio and stacking sequence on the natural frequencies and mode shapes is investigated in details. Results are compared with those available in the literature. Finally some concluding remarks are drawn. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Boucher J.,City University London
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012

Background: Structural language anomalies or impairments in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are theoretically and practically important, although underrecognised as such. This review aims to highlight the ubiquitousness of structural language anomalies and impairments in ASD, and to stimulate investigation of their immediate causes and implications for intervention. Method: Studies of structural language in ASD are reviewed (based on a search of the literature and selected as meeting defined inclusion criteria), and explanatory hypotheses are discussed. Results: Some individuals with ASD never acquire language. Amongst those who do, language abilities range from clinically normal (ALN) to various degrees of impairment (ALI). Developmental trajectories and individual profiles are diverse, and minority subgroups have been identified. Specifically: language is commonly but not always delayed and delayed early language is always characterised by impaired comprehension and odd utterances, and sometimes by deviant articulation and grammar. Nevertheless, by school age an 'ASD-typical' language profile emerges from group studies, with articulation and syntax least affected, and comprehension, semantics and certain facets of morphology most affected. Thus, even individuals with ALN have poor comprehension relative to expressive language; also semantic-processing anomalies and idiosyncratic word usage. It is argued that impaired socio-emotional-communicative relating, atypical sensory-perceptual processing, and uneven memory/learning abilities may underlie shared language anomalies across the spectrum; and that varying combinations of low nonverbal intelligence, semantic memory impairment and comorbidities including specific language impairment (SLI), hearing impairment, and certain medical syndromes underlie ALI and variation in individual profiles. Conclusions: Structural language is universally affected in ASD, due to a complex of shared and unshared causal factors. There is an urgent need for more research especially into the characteristics and causes of clinically significant language impairments. © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Source


Magadi M.A.,City University London
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013

The link between HIV infection and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is rather complex and findings from previous studies remain inconsistent. While some argue that poverty increases vulnerability, existing empirical evidence largely support the view that wealthier men and women have higher prevalence of HIV. In this paper, we examine the association between HIV infection and urban poverty in SSA, paying particular attention to differences in risk factors of HIV infection between the urban poor and non-poor. The study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys from 20 countries in SSA, conducted during 2003-2008. We apply multilevel logistic regression models, allowing the urban poverty risk factor to vary across countries to establish the extent to which the observed patterns are generalizable across countries in the SSA region. The results reveal that the urban poor in SSA have significantly higher odds of HIV infection than their urban non-poor counterparts, despite poverty being associated with a significantly lower risk among rural residents. Furthermore, the gender disparity in HIV infection (i.e. the disproportionate higher risk among women) is amplified among the urban poor. The paper confirms that the public health consequence of urban poverty that has been well documented in previous studies with respect to maternal and child health outcomes does apply to the risk of HIV infection. The positive association between household wealth and HIV prevalence observed in previous studies largely reflects the situation in the rural areas where the majority of the SSA populations reside. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Patent
City University London | Date: 2013-11-07

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