City University London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1894 as the Northampton Institute and became a university when The City University was created by Royal Charter in 1966. The Inns of Court School of Law, which merged with City University in 2001, was established in 1852, making it the university's oldest constituent part.City University has its main campus in the Islington area of central London, with additional campuses in the City of London and the Holborn, Smithfield and Whitechapel areas of London. It is organised into seven Schools, within which there are around 40 academic departments and centres, including the City University Department of Journalism, the Cass Business School and the Inns of Court School of Law .City University had a total income of £178.6 million in 2010/11, of which £8 million was from research grants and contracts. Cass Business school is ranked 2nd in London and top 40 in the world. In 2012 it was ranked 29th in the UK according to the Times Higher Education 'table to tables', 327th in the world according to the QS World University Rankings and is included in Times Higher Education's list of the top 100 universities in the world under 50 years old.City University is a member of the Association of MBAs, EQUIS and Universities UK. Wikipedia.
Howe M.L.,City University London
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in cases involving adult recollections of childhood experiences.
Gaigg S.B.,City University London
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience | Year: 2012
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is clinically defined by abnormalities in reciprocal social and communicative behaviours and an inflexible adherence to routinised patterns of thought and behaviour. Laboratory studies repeatedly demonstrate that autistic individuals experience difficulties in recognising and understanding the emotional expressions of others and naturalistic observations show that they use such expressions infrequently and inappropriately to regulate social exchanges. Dominant theories attribute this facet of the ASD phenotype to abnormalities in a social brain network that mediates social-motivational and social-cognitive processes such as face processing, mental state understanding and empathy. Such theories imply that only emotion related processes relevant to social cognition are compromised in ASD but accumulating evidence suggests that the disorder may be characterised by more widespread anomalies in the domain of emotions. In this review I summarise the relevant literature and argue that the socialemotional characteristics of ASD may be better understood in terms of a disruption in the domain-general interplay between emotion and cognition. More specifically I will suggest that ASD is the developmental consequence of early-emerging anomalies in how emotional responses to the environment modulate a wide range of cognitive processes including those that are relevant to navigating the social world. © 2012 Gaigg.
Boucher J.,City University London
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012
Background: Structural language anomalies or impairments in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are theoretically and practically important, although underrecognised as such. This review aims to highlight the ubiquitousness of structural language anomalies and impairments in ASD, and to stimulate investigation of their immediate causes and implications for intervention. Method: Studies of structural language in ASD are reviewed (based on a search of the literature and selected as meeting defined inclusion criteria), and explanatory hypotheses are discussed. Results: Some individuals with ASD never acquire language. Amongst those who do, language abilities range from clinically normal (ALN) to various degrees of impairment (ALI). Developmental trajectories and individual profiles are diverse, and minority subgroups have been identified. Specifically: language is commonly but not always delayed and delayed early language is always characterised by impaired comprehension and odd utterances, and sometimes by deviant articulation and grammar. Nevertheless, by school age an 'ASD-typical' language profile emerges from group studies, with articulation and syntax least affected, and comprehension, semantics and certain facets of morphology most affected. Thus, even individuals with ALN have poor comprehension relative to expressive language; also semantic-processing anomalies and idiosyncratic word usage. It is argued that impaired socio-emotional-communicative relating, atypical sensory-perceptual processing, and uneven memory/learning abilities may underlie shared language anomalies across the spectrum; and that varying combinations of low nonverbal intelligence, semantic memory impairment and comorbidities including specific language impairment (SLI), hearing impairment, and certain medical syndromes underlie ALI and variation in individual profiles. Conclusions: Structural language is universally affected in ASD, due to a complex of shared and unshared causal factors. There is an urgent need for more research especially into the characteristics and causes of clinically significant language impairments. © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 100.71K | Year: 2017
The backbone of modern, world-wide Information Technology (IT) and Cloud infrastructure consists of a global network of data centres (DCs) each equipped with thousands of server machines. Modern large DCs are equipped with 50,000 to 100,000 of server machines and run a diverse set of application workloads. Reports show that about three million DCs containing 12 million of server machines run all US online operations. We face a DC environment for application deployment of unprecedented scale with regards to the number of server machines and applications. The enormous scale of servers in modern DCs dramatically affects DCs capital and operational costs. Capital costs include all initial spending for DC equipment, including server machines and operational costs are towards the DCs daily operation including electricity consumption and personnel salaries for management. The costs for running DC are enormous. Reports show that the 2015 world-wide spending on DC systems was $170 billion and these are expected to grow by 3% for 2016 to $175 billion. Given the high DC expenditure it is of paramount importance that modern DCs operate in a cost-effective manner, i.e. server machines are fully utilised by running applications and applications are adequately provisioned to meet their performance goals. However, there are numerous reports showing that machines in DCs are on average only 10-15% CPU utilised. The main cause of low utilisation has been the practice of over-provisioning applications with resources to match even their most demanding application workload demands, however rare they might be. However, as workloads are typically time-varying with unknown variations, this practice has led to a dramatic under-utilisation of modern DC resources and consequently to an excess of DC expenditure. Futhermore, practitioners report that current management frameworks are inadequate to perform scalable operational tasks in large-scale environments such as the Cloud. It is therefore an open challenge how to tackle the resource management problem in modern large-scale DCs and increase the overall resource utilisation while satisfying applications performance demands. We propose a new decentralised resource management approach to tackle the under-utilisation problem of DCs. We envisage a decentralised scheme where resource schedulers are distributed across the DC and each scheduler controls the resource allocation of a subset of the DC machines referred to as clusters, i.e. a cluster contains a few 100s of servers. The use of cluster schedulers aims to increase the effective utilisation of machines within a cluster in a timely fashion. Global resource planning across all DC servers is achieved through decentralised coordination of all schedulers. Schedulers communicate to exchange resource utilisation information of their clusters and application performance information for global convergence. To increase the overall utilisation, the goal is to balance the load across all clusters while avoiding hotspots and under-utiisation. The novelty of this work will be on the coordination of the distributed set of cluster schedulers for global resource planning. We aim to use a distributed optimisation and control approach. The potential impact of this work is huge. We anticipate an impact in the Economy of the DC sector and in the domains of People and Knowledge as the proposed work will assist the development of IT administrators skills. The ultimate beneficiary is Society and in particular developers and end-users of Cloud and IT applications. UK currently holds the largest European data centre market. The proposed research has the potential to significantly strengthen the position of the UK in the important DC sector and impact its international position.
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 521.26K | Year: 2016
CONTEXT The comparative project applies concepts of transitional justice, namely, dealing with the past, to investigate how six European societies (Spain, Portugal, Greece, Ireland, Cyprus, Iceland) have come to terms with the origins and consequences of the post-2008 financial crisis. The economic aspects of the crash are well discussed elsewhere; the proposed project argues significant political and legal lessons can be learned from the crisis, but these are missed by viewing it only through an economic lens. Simply stated, transitional justice, a framework developed over the past forty years, considers how national political elites balance popular calls for truth and justice with the pragmatic need for stability in the aftermath of crisis. Prosecutions, truth recovery and amnesties or impunity are much studied mechanisms. Notably, these mechanisms have been deployed in the cases under consideration. Spain and Portugal took only minimal steps to address the causes of the crisis, in effect, pursuing a policy of immunity. Iceland and Cyprus set up ad hoc truth commissions to document the causes of the crisis. Ireland and Greece have prosecuted and convicted a number of bankers and politicians deemed responsible. The project seeks to explain why, despite similar background conditions, societies have formulated different policy responses and to identify the strengths and limitations of each response. This is important. Examining the comparative experience of societies who experiment with policy mechanisms will contribute to the design of better policy responses in times of crisis, decreasing the level of social upheaval, boosting political legitimacy and paving the way for meaningful institutional reform. This project is explicitly about the intersection of politics and law; it focuses on issues of political and institutional failure and the role of law in promoting accountability, responsibility and political learning from economic crises. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS The project is both academic and policy relevant. At the academic level, it will use the analytical framework of transitional justice to consider why political elites in certain countries develop policies to account for the political and institutional causes of an economic crisis, while others do not. Economic perspectives now dominate relevant debates; unfortunately, these overlook issues of political and legal responsibility in times of economic crisis. The projects findings will be relevant to a wide range of disciplines in the social sciences, including politics, law, and economics, and have the potential to introduce a novel perspective to the study of economic crises. At the same time, the scope of the project will allow it to contribute to policymaking. First, the project will explore the ways external supervision attached to IMF bailouts may affect domestic political leaders in dealing with the past. Based on empirical material collected during fieldwork and semi-structured interviews with IMF and EU executives as well as national political elites, the project will prepare and distribute policy briefings with practical recommendations to improve the design of future bailouts, creating space for issues of justice, truth and accountability to be addressed. Other policy briefings will encapsulate the central findings for each country; these will be of interest to local political elites, government departments, policymakers, and civil society activists. All briefings will be made publically available. In addition, a unique online open-access website will contain rich empirical data, including political decisions, court rulings and other legal precedents; these will be of value to lawyers, legal scholars and policymakers globally, as well as other interested parties, such as activists and NGOs.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.01M | Year: 2017
In order to relieve pressure on an increasingly overstretched NHS, there is an ever-growing need to deliver more efficient, effective, patient-centric care in the community. New intelligent healthcare technologies have the potential to deliver this care relieve the pressure, in the form of simple-to-use digital technologies in peoples home that support self-care and reduce the need for routine interventions from healthcare professionals. Therefore, the SCAMPI consortium will develop a new form of computerised toolkit that will allow someone living in their own home with a chronic condition, together with their relatives, carers and healthcare professionals, to self-manage both their care of the condition and life with it. People will interact with the new toolkit through a new form of intelligent visual care plan, called VIZ-CARE. Any care plan is a documented agreement between a patient and healthcare professionals about the patients care goals and qualities to maintain or work towards, and the desired services, medicines, and activities such as eating, exercising and socialising. SCAMPIs new form of care plan will be visual, natural and simple-to-use, enabling a person living at home with a chronic condition to customise their life and care according to their individual needs and preferences, with pro-active support for thinking about important care goals and qualities, as well as the means to achieve those goals and qualities. The person using VIZ-CARE will also be able to share the plan with named relatives, their carers and targeted healthcare professionals such as specialist nurses and their GPs, and make joint decisions about customising the care plan so that the persons needs can be met more effectively, even when these other people are elsewhere, using web technologies. Moreover, the visual care plan will update regularly with care-specific feedback from discrete and cost-effective sensor devices placed around the persons home. Using the available data from these sensors as input to different artificial intelligence algorithms, a persons visual care plan in VIZ-CARE will indicate the degree to which the care goals and qualities of the person as specified in the plan are being achieved, and if needed, flag potential risk indicators along with care recommendations when a goal or quality is not being achieved. For example, to monitor planned daily activities such as a 20-minute local walk, VIZ-CARE will collect data not only about walking using a device such as a pedometer, but also about life and care qualities specific to the person and dependent on good hydration associated with walking about weight loss (from scales), movement in the home (to detect disorientation), kitchen temperature (to detect food consumption), loss of energy (from bed sensors) and water usage (from tap meters), and generate risks warnings if needed. This intelligence-led feedback is predicted to support self-care and reduce the need for routine interventions from healthcare professionals in the management of chronic conditions. To develop and evaluate this new computerised toolkit, leading researchers in computer science, the health sciences and digital business at City University London have joined forces. The team will develop the first version of the toolkit to support with people with two conditions - dementia and Parkinsons disease. And to engage people with these conditions, their families, carers and disease experts in the co-design and evaluation of the toolkit, the researchers will work closely with the Alzheimers Society and Parkinsons UK. Moreover, to maximise impact from SCAMPI, the team will work with 6 London-based Care Commissioning Groups (CCGs) - Sutton CCG and the CWHHE Collaborative of 5 CCGs. Digital entrepreneurs Evalucom Consulting will seek to commercialise the research results so that the elements of the toolkit can be made quickly and widely available.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 660.67K | Year: 2017
Commercial steam power plants pressurise and heat water to produce steam which is then expanded to produce electricity. However, using an organic fluid permits low temperature heat sources, typically between 80 and 350 degrees Celsius, to be converted into mechanical power more economically than steam. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) therefore have a great potential to contribute to the UKs mix of low carbon technologies with promising applications such as combined heat and power, concentrated solar power and waste heat recovery from reciprocating engines and other industrial processes with waste heat streams. However, despite successful commercialisation of ORCs for industrial scale applications, more development is required at the commercial and domestic scales before its potential can be realised. More specifically, at these small-scales, the challenge lies in the design of systems that are efficient but are also low cost. One approach to achieving this is to develop systems that operate efficiently over a range of different conditions. This will enable the high-volume, low-cost production of ORC systems, enabling significant improvements in the economy-of-scale. Furthermore, at this scale, different expander technologies, such as turbo and screw expanders, and system architectures can be considered. However, it is not clear which expander technology or system architecture is the optimal choice to achieve the desired improvements in the economy-of-scale. To answer this question it is important to improve the understanding of how different ORC expanders perform across a wide range of operating conditions, and to investigate how these systems respond to changes in the working fluid. The focus of this proposal is to conduct original research to improve the fundamental understanding on the performance of two different types of ORC expander, namely turbo and screw expanders. Computational and experimental methods will be used to investigate the performance of these expanders across a wide range of operating conditions and with a variety of organic fluids. These studies must account for the complexities of using organic fluids that exhibit complex fluid behaviour not observed in conventional fluids such as air and steam, in addition to considering the high speed flows, and two-phase conditions that are expected in turbo and screw expanders respectively. Ultimately, the results from these studies will improve the existing scientific understanding, and will facilitate the development of new performance prediction methods for these expanders. Understanding these aspects will not only lead to improved performance prediction, but could also lead to improved component design in the future. Within this project the new prediction methods will be used to investigate and compare the performance of different expanders within different ORC system architectures. The results from these comparisons will enable the identification of the optimal systems that can operate across a wide range of operating conditions, and therefore best facilitate improvements in the economy-of-scale of small-scale ORC systems. The primary outcomes of this research will be improved fundamental understanding of the performance of ORC expanders and validated performance models for turbine and screw expanders. Furthermore, recommendations will be made on the most appropriate system configurations that offer improvements in the economy-of-scale, thus enhancing the future commercialisation of small-scale ORC technology. Therefore this project has the potential to stimulate investment and create new jobs within the low carbon energy market, whilst positively contributing to the UKs existing research portfolio in turbomachinery and screw expanders.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 99.29K | Year: 2017
The project considers the economical, psychological and social effects of ransomware. Ransomware is a particular type of malware, and a new crime of extortion committed online. Malicious software gets installed through a phishing email or a drive-by download on a website. When it runs, it performs an action such as the encryption of the users files, and asks a ransom for this action to be undone. The victim is coerced into paying through psychological manipulations which sometimes masquerade as advice. Due to the subtle ways that the technological aspects of the crime blend with - and are exploited through - various human dimensions, it has profound economic, psychological and societal impacts upon its victims, which makes its eradication all the more complicated. Law Enforcement Agencies have estimated that losses to criminals using ransomware are many millions of pounds, but the true costs may never be known because victims have shown to be particularly reluctant to report. This project sets out to answer the following questions: Why is ransomware so effective as a crime and why are so many people falling victim to it? Who is carrying out ransomware attacks? How can police agencies be assisted? What interventions are required to mitigate the impacts of ransomware? In order to do so, the project gathers data from Law Enforcement Agencies (which have agreed to closely collaborate with the project), through surveys of the general public and SMEs, and through interviews with stakeholders. The data will be analysed using script analysis, behavioural analysis, and other profiling techniques, leading to narratives regarding the criminals, the victims, and the typical ransomware scenario. Economical and behavioural models of ransomware will then be constructed and used to improve ransomware mitigation and advice, as well as support for law enforcement.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 347.96K | Year: 2016
We begin to get acquainted with localisation (albeit not under this name) while in high school. Consider the set N of natural numbers: 0, 1,2,3,... Two natural numbers could be added, but they cannot always be subtracted: 1-2 is not a natural number. We say that N forms a monoid; it is commutative because a sum of two natural numbers does not depend on the order in which they are added. It is useful to have an algebraic structure that accommodates subtraction as well as addition; this is how the set of integers Z is constructed out of natural numbers; essentially, negatives are simply added to the existing elements. We say that Z is a (still commutative) group and it is a group completion of the monoid N. There are other similar examples: consider Z with the operation of multiplication (rather than addition as above). Again, it is a commutative monoid and its completion is the set Q of rational numbers. Note that in the last example Z supports two structures: addition and multiplication, suitably compatible. A formalization of this is called a (commutative) ring. On the other hand, Q is more than a ring: it is a field, which means that all non-zero element of it are invertible. The field Q is called the field of fractions of Z, because its elements could indeed be viewed as fraction with integer numerator and denominator. Group completions of monoids and fields of fractions of rings are examples of localization. In the present project we concentrate on localization of rings, or or more general structures called differential graded rings. Given a commutative ring A and a collection S of elements in A one can try to formally invert it, or localise at S. For example, the localization of Z at the set of all non-zero integers produces Q. This is one of the most fundamental and simple procedures in commutative algebra; it serves as an underpinning of advanced fields of pure mathematics, such as algebraic geometry, and is indispensable as a tool for proving theorems. Commutative localisation has been well understood for a long time. In contrast, our understanding of localization of noncommutative rings (such as a ring of square matrces) is more patchy; various useful constructions, such as forming a field of fractions, are either impossible or only hold under severe constraints. On the other hand, noncommutative localization is very important, for example it could be said that the whole subject of homotopy theory (the study of those properties of spaces which do not change under continuous deformation) revolves around localization of a certain category (which is a generalization of a noncommutative algebra). The main insight of the present project, which builds on a recent work by the proposers, is that once the category of noncommutative rings is suitably extended, the formal properties of commutative localization are almost completely restored. The goal of the present project is to exploit the consequences of this idea, extend it suitably and derive consequences in algebra, topology and category theory.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 348.02K | Year: 2016
Launch and recovery of small vehicles from a large vessel is a common operation in maritime sectors, such as launching and recovering unmanned underwater vehicles from a patrol of research vessel or launching and recovering lifeboats from offshore platforms or ships. Such operations are often performed in harsh sea conditions. The recent User Inspired Academic Challenge Workshop on Maritime Launch and Recovery, held in July 2014 and coordinated by BAE systems, identified various challenges associated with safe launch and recovery of off-board, surface and sub-surface assets from vessels while underway in severe sea conditions. One of them is the lack of an accurate and efficient modelling tool for predicting the hydrodynamic loads on and the motion of two floating bodies, such as vessels of different size which may be coupled by a non-rigid link, in close proximity in harsh seas. Such a tool may be employed to minimise the risk of collisions and unacceptable motions, and to facilitate early testing of new concepts and systems. It may also be used to estimate hydrodynamic loads during the deployment of a smaller vessel (for example, a lifeboat) and during recovery of a smaller vessel from the deck of a larger vessel. The difficulties associated with development of such tools lie in the following aspects: (1) the water waves in harsh sea states have to be simulated; (2) the motion of the small vehicle and change in its wetted surface during launch or recovery can be very large, possibly moving from totally dry in air to becoming entirely submerged; (3) the viscous effects may play an important role and cannot be ignored, and will affect the coupling between ocean waves and motion of the vehicles. Existing methods and tools available to the industry cannot deal with all of these issues together and typically require very high computational resources. This project will develop an accurate and efficient numerical model that can be applied routinely for the analysis of the motion and loadings of two bodies in close proximity with or without physical connection in high sea-states, which of course can be employed to analyse the launch and recovery process of a small vehicle from a large vessel and to calculate the hydrodynamics during the process. This will be achieved building upon the recent developed numerical methods and computer codes by the project partners and also the success of the past and ongoing collaborative work between them. In addition, the project will involve several industrial partners to ensure the delivery of the project and to promote impact.