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City University London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1894 as the Northampton Institute and became a university when The City University was created by Royal Charter in 1966. The Inns of Court School of Law, which merged with City University in 2001, was established in 1852, making it the university's oldest constituent part.City University has its main campus in the Islington area of central London, with additional campuses in the City of London and the Holborn, Smithfield and Whitechapel areas of London. It is organised into seven Schools, within which there are around 40 academic departments and centres, including the City University Department of Journalism, the Cass Business School and the Inns of Court School of Law .City University had a total income of £178.6 million in 2010/11, of which £8 million was from research grants and contracts. Cass Business school is ranked 2nd in London and top 40 in the world. In 2012 it was ranked 29th in the UK according to the Times Higher Education 'table to tables', 327th in the world according to the QS World University Rankings and is included in Times Higher Education's list of the top 100 universities in the world under 50 years old.City University is a member of the Association of MBAs, EQUIS and Universities UK. Wikipedia.


Crabb D.P.,City University London
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012

Published recommendations suggest three visual field (VF) tests per year are required to identify rapid progression in a newly diagnosed glaucomatous patient over 2 years. This report aims to determine if identification of progression would be improved by clustering tests at the beginning and end of the 2-year period. Computer-simulated "patients" were given a rapid VF (mean deviation [MD]) loss of -2 dB/year with added MD measurement variability. Linear regression of MD against time was used to estimate progression. One group of "patients" was measured every 6 months, another every 4 months, whereas the wait-and-see group were measured either 2 or 3 times at both baseline and at the end of a 2-year period. Stable "patients" (0 dB/year) were generated to examine the effect of the follow-up patterns on false-positive (FP) progression identification. By 2 years, 58% and 82% of rapidly progressing patients were correctly detected using evenly spaced 6- and 4-month VFs, respectively. This power of detection significantly improved to 62% and 95% with the wait-and-see approach (P < 0.001). When compared with evenly spaced VFs, the rate of MD loss was better estimated by the wait-and-see approach, but average detection time was slightly slower. Evenly spaced testing incurred a significantly higher FP rate: up to 5.9% compared with only 0.4% in wait-and-see (P < 0.001). Compared with an evenly spaced follow-up, wait-and-see identifies more "patients" with rapid VF progression with fewer FPs, making it particularly applicable to clinical trials. Modeling experiments, as reported here, are useful for investigating and optimizing follow-up schemes. Source


Yearsley J.M.,City University London
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014

All mental representations change with time. A baseline intuition is that mental representations have specific values at different time points, which may be more or less accessible, depending on noise, forgetting processes, etc. We present a radical alternative, motivated by recent research using the mathematics from quantum theory for cognitive modelling. Such cognitive models raise the possibility that certain possibilities or events may be incompatible, so that perfect knowledge of one necessitates uncertainty for the others. In the context of time-dependence, in physics, this issue is explored with the so-called temporal Bell (TB) or Leggett-Garg inequalities. We consider in detail the theoretical and empirical challenges involved in exploring the TB inequalities in the context of cognitive systems. One interesting conclusion is that we believe the study of the TB inequalities to be empirically more constrained in psychology than in physics. Specifically, we show how the TB inequalities, as applied to cognitive systems, can be derived from two simple assumptions: cognitive realism and cognitive completeness. We discuss possible implications of putative violations of the TB inequalities for cognitive models and our understanding of time in cognition in general. Overall, this paper provides a surprising, novel direction in relation to how time should be conceptualized in cognition. Source


Greer C.,City University London
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2012

This article contributes to research on the sociology of scandal and the role of national newspapers and, more particularly, newspaper editorials in setting the agenda for public debate around police accountability and miscarriages of justice. In previous work, we analysed how citizen journalism framed news coverage of the policing of the G20 Summit, London 2009, and the death of Ian Tomlinson (Greer and McLaughlin 2010). In this article, we consider the next stage of the Ian Tomlinson case. Our empirical focus is the controversy surrounding the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) decision not to prosecute the police officer filmed striking Tomlinson shortly before he collapsed and died. We illustrate how the press's relentless agenda-setting around 'institutional failure', initially targeted at the Metropolitan Police Service, expanded to implicate a network of criminal justice institutions. The Tomlinson case offers insights into the shifting nature of contemporary relations between the British press and institutional power. It is a paradigmatic example of a politically ambitious form of 'attack journalism', the scope of which extends beyond the criminal justice system. In a volatile information-communications marketplace, journalistic distrust of institutional power is generating a 'press politics of outrage', characterized by 'scandal amplification'. © 2011 The Author. Source


Kyriacou P.A.,City University London
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND:: Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive photometric technique that provides information about arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate and has widespread clinical applications. This is accomplished via peripheral pulse oximetry probes mainly attached to the finger, toe, or earlobe. The direct application of pulse oximetry to an organ, such as the esophagus, liver, bowel, stomach or free flap, might provide an indication of how well perfused an organ or a free flap is. Also, the placement of a pulse oximetry probe at a more central site, such as the esophagus, might be more reliable at a time when conventional peripheral pulse oximetry fails. METHODS:: The focus of this article is the development and in vivo applications of new custom-made photoplethysmographic (PPG) and pulse oximetry optical and fiberoptic probes and instrumentation in an effort to investigate their suitability for the estimation of arterial blood oxygen saturation at different organs and tissues. The article will cover examples of application areas including real-time PPG and SpO2 monitoring for the esophagus and solid organs, including free flaps, using custom-made probes. RESULTS:: Clinical studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring PPGs and estimating arterial blood oxygen saturation values from a variety of organs and tissues. CONCLUSIONS:: The technological developments and the measurements presented in this work pave the way to a new era of pulse oximetry where direct and continuous monitoring of blood oxygen saturation of internal organs and tissues (esophagus, bowel, liver, stomach, free flaps) could be possible. © 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source


Stefanski B.,City University London
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2014

We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N = 2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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