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Yassin A.M.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute | Elnouby M.,Advanced Technology & New Materials Research Institute | El-Deeb N.M.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute | Hafez E.E.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

In this study, we synthesized tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates, both crystallographic phases and the morphology of the samples were determined by powder x-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The obtained data clarified that, the all prepared WO3·H2O samples were composed of large quantity of nanoplates. The cytotoxicity patterns of nanoplates were checked on both normal and cancer mammalian cell lines. Both nanoplates cytotoxicity did not exceed the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the all normal tested cells even by using concentrations up to 1 mg/ml. In addition, orthorhombic tungsten oxide nanoplate was more potent against both Caco2 and Hela cells by showing inhibition percentages in cellular viability 64.749 and 72.27, respectively, and with cancer selectivity index reached 3.2 and 2.6 on both colon and cervix cancer, respectively. The anticancer effects of nanoplates were translated to alteration in both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expressions. Tungsten oxide nanoplates down regulated the expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) genes. In addition, orthorhombic tungsten oxide nanoplates showed more potentiation in IL2 and IL8 induction (40.43 pg/ml) and upregulation of TNF-α gene expression but with lower folds than Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

Ji M.-K.,Yonsei University | Abou-Shanab R.A.I.,Yonsei University | Abou-Shanab R.A.I.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications | Kim S.-H.,Yonsei University | And 6 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2013

This study demonstrates the potential for algae-based biofuel production by coupling advanced wastewater treatment with microalgae cultivation for low-cost lipid production. Three species (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ourococcus multisporus) with higher biomass yield were selected and cultured in wastewater amended with 15% CO2. C. vulgaris, S. obliquus and O. multisporus showed optimal specific growth rates (μopt) of 1.37, 1.14 and 1.00 day-1, respectively, and almost complete removal (>99%) of nitrogen and phosphorus within 4 days. The highest specific lipid productivity was 0.164g-lipidsg-cell-1 day-1 and oleic acid was increased to 44% in C. vulgaris after 7 days of cultivation in the presence of CO2. It was concluded that C. vulgaris is a good potential source for the production of biodiesel coupled with nutrient removal from wastewater. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ji M.-K.,Yonsei University | Kim H.-C.,Pennsylvania State University | Sapireddy V.R.,Yonsei University | Yun H.-S.,Yonsei University | And 6 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The feasibility of using a microalga Chlorella vulgaris YSW-04 was investigated for removal of nutrients from piggery wastewater effluent. The consequent lipid production by the microalga was also identified and quantitatively determined. The wastewater effluent was diluted to different concentrations ranging from 20 to 80 % of the original using either synthetic media or distilled water. The dilution effect on both lipid production and nutrient removal was evaluated, and growth rate of C. vulgaris was also monitored. Dilution of the wastewater effluent improved microalgal growth, lipid productivity, and nutrient removal. The growth rate of C. vulgaris was increased with decreased concentration of piggery wastewater in the culture media regardless of the diluent type. Lipid production was relatively higher when using synthetic media than using distilled water for dilution of wastewater. The composition of fatty acids accumulated in microalgal biomass was dependent upon both dilution ratio and diluent type. The microalga grown on a 20 % concentration of wastewater effluent diluted with distilled water was more promising for generating high-efficient biodiesel compared to the other culture conditions. The highest removal of inorganic nutrients was also achieved at the same dilution condition. Our results revealed the optimal pretreatment condition for the biodegradation of piggery wastewater with microalgae for subsequent production of high-efficient biodiesel. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Abou-Shanab R.A.I.,Yonsei University | Abou-Shanab R.A.I.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications | Ji M.-K.,Yonsei University | Kim H.-C.,Yonsei University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Six microalgal species were examined in this study to determine their effectiveness in the coupling of piggery wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. The dry biomasses of Ourococcus multisporus, Nitzschia cf. pusilla, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris, and Micractinium reisseri were 0.34 ± 0.08, 0.37 ± 0.13, 0.56 ± 0.35, 0.53 ± 0.30, 0.49 ± 0.26, and 0.35 ± 0.08 g dwt/L, respectively. The highest removal of nitrogen (62%), phosphorus (28%), and inorganic carbon (29%) were achieved by C. mexicana. In the absence of microalgae, the spontaneous precipitation of phosphorus, calcium, and inorganic carbon occurred at slightly alkaline pH. The highest lipid productivity and lipid content (0.31 ± 0.03 g/L and 33 ± 3%, respectively) were found in C. mexicana. The fatty acid compositions of the studied species were mainly palmitic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and oleic. The results of our study suggest that C. mexicana is one of the most promising candidates for simultaneous nutrient removal and high-efficient biodiesel production. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Shaaban M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Abid M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Abou-Shanab R.A.I.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2013

Combined application of organic and inorganic amendments was known to play a significant role in improvement of soil properties. A field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of gypsum, farmyard manure and commercial humic acid application on the amelioration of salt affected (saline sodic) soil. During this study, soil pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, responses of root length and rice paddy yield were examined. Application of gypsum with or without farm manure and commercial humic acid decreased soil pH (8.26%), electrical conductivity (from 6.35 dS/m to 2.65 dS/m) and sodium adsorption ratio (from 26.56 to 11.60), and increased root length (from 9.17 cm to 22.6 cm) and paddy yield (from 695.7 kg/ha to 1644 kg/ha). A negative but significant correlation was observed between root length and electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio (r = -0.93; -0.94, respectively, P ≤ 0.05), whereas positive and significant correlation with paddy yield (r = 0.96; P ≤ 0.05). Source

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