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El Enshasy H.,University of Technology Malaysia | El Enshasy H.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Application | Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | And 2 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. © 2013 Hesham El Enshasy et al.

Dailin D.J.,University of Technology Malaysia | Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Othman N.Z.,University of Technology Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25gL-1, respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76gL-1 concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91gL-1. © 2015 The Authors.

Osman A.-M.M.,King Abdulaziz University | Osman A.-M.M.,Cairo University | Al-Malki H.S.,King Abdulaziz University | Al-Harthi S.E.,King Abdulaziz University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2015

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in current use and it has proven efficacy against various human malignancies. However, its clinical usefulness has been restricted by detrimental side effects, including nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression. The aim of the present study was to attempt to decrease the required dose of CIS, in order to minimize its side effects, and increase its capability to arrest, delay or reverse carcinogenesis. In addition, the present study aimed to ameliorate CIS-resistance in CRC cells, using the natural compound resveratrol (RSVL). RSVL (3,4', 5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol present in the roots of white hellebore (Veratrum grandiflorum O. Loes) and extracted from >70 other plant species. RSVL can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and it has been shown to be active in the regulation of numerous cellular events associated with carcinogenesis. The present study evaluated the effects of RSVL on sensitization of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells to the action of cisplatin. The CIS was administered at a dose of 5 and 20 μg/ml, and CIS cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle and cisplatin cellular uptake were examined in the presence and absence of RSVL (15 μg/ml). RSVL treatment showed anti-proliferative effects and enhanced the cytotoxic effects of CIS against the growth of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 4.20 μg/ml and 4.72 μg/ml respectively. RSVL also induced a significant increase in the early apoptosis fraction and enhanced the subsequent apoptotic effects of CIS. The cellular uptake of CIS was significantly increased in the presence of RSVL, as compared with CIS treatment alone, and RSVL treatment sensitized the CIS-resistant HCT-116 cells. In conclusion, RSVL treatment increased the cytotoxic activity of CIS against the growth of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells.

Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Othman N.Z.,UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia | Malek R.,UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2014

Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus WICC-B-02 is new probiotic strain which was initially isolated from the mother's milk. As lactic acid bacterium, it's known as a highly efficient probiotic microorganism with a wide range of benefits on the human health. This study was conducted to design and establish industrial platform for high cell mass production of L. delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus for pharmaceutical and food industries application. However, due to low cell mass production caused by the accumulation of lactic acid during the cultivation of lactic acid bacteria, therefore, the optimization of cell mass production with low lactic acid production was developed in this study. The new formulation of the production medium was developed by optimizing the main components such as glucose (30 g.L-1), yeast extract (6.0 g.L-1) and peptone (6.0 g.L-1)in shake flask cultivation. The cell mass production was 3.14 g.L-1, and it increased to 6.08g.L-1 with the lactic acid production being reduced by about 33%, compared to the un-optimized medium. © 2014 Elsayed A. Elsayed et al.

Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | El Enshasy H.,University of Technology Malaysia | El Enshasy H.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Application | And 2 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2014

For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. © 2014 Elsayed A. Elsayed et al.

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