City of Scientific Research and Technology Application

‘Izbat al Burj, Egypt

City of Scientific Research and Technology Application

‘Izbat al Burj, Egypt
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Ahmed N.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Abid M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Rashid A.,Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission | Abou-Shanab R.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Application | Ahmad F.,Central Cotton Research Institute
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

Understanding the effect of boron (B) on plant physiology will help to refine the diagnosis of B deficiency and improvement in B fertilizer recommendations for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growing areas. This study shows the testing of hypotheses "that application of B-fertilizer improves net photosynthetic rate (PN) and water use efficiency (WUE) for cotton plant on a B-deficient soil [< 0.50 mg B kg-1 hydrochloric acid (HCl)-extractable] in an arid environment". Thus, a permanent layout [two-year field experiment (2004 and 2005)] was conducted to study the impact of B fertilizer at 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 kg ha-1 on gas exchange and electrolyte leakage (EL) characteristics of cotton crop (cv. 'CIM-473'). The soil at experimental site was alkaline (pH 8.1), calcareous [calcium carbonate (CaCO3 5.6%)], and silt loam (Typic Haplocambid). Boron use decreased EL of plant membrane (P ≤ 0.05), and increased PN, transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs), while intercellular concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2; Ci) significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) during both experimental years. There was a positive, but non-significant effect of B concentration on chlorophyll content in plant leaves. Application of 3.0 kg B ha-1 improved WUE up to 9.7% [4.62 μmol (CO2) mmol-1 water (H2O)] compared to control plants (4.21 [μmol (CO2) mmol-1 (H2O)]. Principal component analysis (PCA) of data indicates positive correlations between leaf B concentration and PN, E, gs, and WUE, while a negative relationship existed between leaf B concentration and intercellular CO2 (Ci). This study showed that addition of B fertilizer in the B-deficient calcareous soil proved beneficial for growth and development for cotton crop by enhancing its WUE and gas exchange characteristics. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Osman A.-M.M.,King Abdulaziz University | Osman A.-M.M.,Cairo University | Al-Malki H.S.,King Abdulaziz University | Al-Harthi S.E.,King Abdulaziz University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2015

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in current use and it has proven efficacy against various human malignancies. However, its clinical usefulness has been restricted by detrimental side effects, including nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression. The aim of the present study was to attempt to decrease the required dose of CIS, in order to minimize its side effects, and increase its capability to arrest, delay or reverse carcinogenesis. In addition, the present study aimed to ameliorate CIS-resistance in CRC cells, using the natural compound resveratrol (RSVL). RSVL (3,4', 5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol present in the roots of white hellebore (Veratrum grandiflorum O. Loes) and extracted from >70 other plant species. RSVL can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and it has been shown to be active in the regulation of numerous cellular events associated with carcinogenesis. The present study evaluated the effects of RSVL on sensitization of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells to the action of cisplatin. The CIS was administered at a dose of 5 and 20 μg/ml, and CIS cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle and cisplatin cellular uptake were examined in the presence and absence of RSVL (15 μg/ml). RSVL treatment showed anti-proliferative effects and enhanced the cytotoxic effects of CIS against the growth of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 4.20 μg/ml and 4.72 μg/ml respectively. RSVL also induced a significant increase in the early apoptosis fraction and enhanced the subsequent apoptotic effects of CIS. The cellular uptake of CIS was significantly increased in the presence of RSVL, as compared with CIS treatment alone, and RSVL treatment sensitized the CIS-resistant HCT-116 cells. In conclusion, RSVL treatment increased the cytotoxic activity of CIS against the growth of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells.

El Enshasy H.,University of Technology Malaysia | El Enshasy H.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Application | Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | And 2 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. © 2013 Hesham El Enshasy et al.

Dailin D.J.,University of Technology Malaysia | Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Othman N.Z.,University of Technology Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25gL-1, respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76gL-1 concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91gL-1. © 2015 The Authors.

Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Othman N.Z.,University of Technology Malaysia | Malek R.,University of Technology Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

The process for high cell mass and spore production by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti) on semi-industrial scale was developed. Cultivations were conducted in shake flask and bioreactor levels to develop a semi-industrial scale process for the production of Bti cells and spores. The composition of the most suitable cultivation medium was further optimized to enhance biomass and spore production and also to reduce the production time. Furthermore, cultivations were performed in 16-L stirred tank bioreactor to investigate the scalability of this process and to study the effect of different aeration rates. The optimization of the main three components of the cultivation medium, i.e. glucose, ammonium sulphate and phosphate, resulted in a significant increase in both cell growth and spore formation by about 32% and 119%, respectively. Scaling up the cultivation process from shake flask to 16-L bioreactor further improved the process. Maximal cell mass of 16.06 g.L-1 concomitant with a spore production of 152x107 spores.mL-1 was achieved in lv.v-1.min-1 aerated culture. In terms of cell growth and spore production, these results were 5- and 8.5-fold higher, respectively, compared with the initial un-optimized medium in shake flask culture. The results obtained in this study improved the process of Bti production in semi-industrial scale through the optimization of both the cultivation medium composition and the aeration rate in pilot scale stirred tank bioreactor.

Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Othman N.Z.,UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia | Malek R.,UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2014

Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus WICC-B-02 is new probiotic strain which was initially isolated from the mother's milk. As lactic acid bacterium, it's known as a highly efficient probiotic microorganism with a wide range of benefits on the human health. This study was conducted to design and establish industrial platform for high cell mass production of L. delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus for pharmaceutical and food industries application. However, due to low cell mass production caused by the accumulation of lactic acid during the cultivation of lactic acid bacteria, therefore, the optimization of cell mass production with low lactic acid production was developed in this study. The new formulation of the production medium was developed by optimizing the main components such as glucose (30 g.L-1), yeast extract (6.0 g.L-1) and peptone (6.0 g.L-1)in shake flask cultivation. The cell mass production was 3.14 g.L-1, and it increased to 6.08g.L-1 with the lactic acid production being reduced by about 33%, compared to the un-optimized medium. © 2014 Elsayed A. Elsayed et al.

Elsayed E.A.,King Saud University | Elsayed E.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | El Enshasy H.,University of Technology Malaysia | El Enshasy H.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Application | And 2 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2014

For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. © 2014 Elsayed A. Elsayed et al.

El Enshasy H.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | El Enshasy H.A.,City of Scientific Research and Technology Application | Hatti-Kaul R.,Lund University
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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