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PubMed | Environment Canada and City of Montreal
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The environmental repercussions of the discharge of disinfected effluents are still poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of ozonation and UV oxidative treatment processes on metal forms - particulate, colloidal and permeable fractions - and bioavailability in disinfected wastewaters. In addition to wastewater analyses, mussels were placed in continuous flow-through aquaria and exposed for 4wk to wastewater, then metals in their tissues were analysed in parallel with exposure biomarkers. Metal size distribution was affected by oxidative processes; results showed that ozonation treatment generally increases the permeable fraction of some metals, particularly Cd and Cu, in treated waters, whereas UV treatment fosters the formation of permeable Zn. Ozone treatment of wastewater generally increased the bioavailability of specific metals. Metal bioaccumulation was in most cases significantly higher in mussels exposed to ozone-treated effluent compared to the UV treatment: 58%, 32%, 42% and 47% higher, respectively, for Ag, Cd, Cr and Cu. Physical metal speciation in these wastewaters comparatively measured the permeable fraction of metals to relate them to the bioaccumulation results for the exposed mussels. The levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in gills but not in the digestive gland. The levels of metallothionein in the digestive gland were also significantly reduced suggest decreased input of particulate metals. Results of bioaccumulation in mussels suggested that metal bioavailability can be modified by the different oxidative processes. Despite this disadvantage, ozonation still represents a great choice of treatment considering the overall environmental benefits.


News Article | March 31, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« City of Montreal signs a framework agreement for the purchase of Nissan LEAF EVs for municipal fleet | Main | Tesla unveils Model 3; delivery by end of 2017; already 115,000 reservations placed » A 20-kilowatt wireless charging system demonstrated at Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has achieved 90 percent efficiency and at three times the rate of the plug-in systems commonly used for electric vehicles today. ORNL’s power electronics team achieved this world’s first 20 kW wireless charging system for passenger cars by developing a unique architecture that included an ORNL-built inverter, isolation transformer, vehicle-side electronics and coupling technologies—all in less than three years. For the demonstration, researchers integrated the single-converter system into an electric Toyota RAV4 equipped with an additional 10 kWh battery. Convenience and simplicity are at the heart of the ORNL system, which places a strong emphasis on radio communications in the power regulation feedback channel augmented by software control algorithms. The result is minimization of vehicle on-board complexity as ORNL and partners pursue the long-range goal of connected vehicles, wireless communications and in-motion charging. While the team’s initial focus has been static, or motionless, wireless charging, the researchers also evaluated and demonstrated the system’s dynamic charging capabilities. This ability can help accelerate the adoption and convenience of electric vehicles. Industry partners from Toyota, Cisco Systems, Evatran, and Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research contributed to the technology development demonstrated today at ORNL. The researchers are already looking ahead to their next target of 50-kilowatt wireless charging, which would match the power levels of commercially available plug-in quick chargers. Providing the same speed with the convenience of wireless charging could increase consumer acceptance of electric vehicles and is considered a key enabler for hands-free, autonomous vehicles. Higher power levels are also essential for powering larger vehicles such as trucks and buses. As the researchers advance their system to higher power levels, one of their chief considerations is safety. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office provided funding for this competitively-selected project as part of a broad portfolio in support of DOE’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, which aims to make plug-in electric vehicles as affordable to own and operate as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles by 2022. Toyota provided several vehicles for the research, including RAV4s, a Scion and a Plug-in Prius. Other members of the ORNL project team are current staff members Steven Campbell, Paul Chambon, Omer Onar, Burak Ozpineci, Larry Seiber, Lixin Tang, Cliff White and Randy Wiles as well as retired staff members Curt Ayers, Chester Coomer and John Miller. The research and demonstration took place at ORNL’s National Transportation Research Center, a DOE User Facility.


News Article | February 5, 2016
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

The company that lost a bid to build the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline (and has filed a lawsuit against the U.S. government for $15 billion for lost profits) is eyeing to get its tar sands oil to the Gulf Coast another way: by sea. TransCanada is proposing a scheme that would start as a pipeline in Alberta terminating at Canada’s Bay of Fundy and then continue by supertanker moving tar sands through the Gulf of Maine, to Louisiana and Texas, with stops at major ports along the East coast and by the tip of Florida. So far, Canadian federal decision-makers are ignoring the risk that this proposal presents to U.S. coasts and fisheries even as the National Academy of Sciences has found that tar sands spills are more devastating than conventional oil to water sources and spill responders are unequipped for cleanups. But Canadian public opposition to the project is fierce as demonstrated by another major announcement that the City of Montreal and the Montreal Metropolitan Community representing 82 municipalities and nearly 4 million people are now officially opposed to the project. TransCanada hopes Americans won’t notice. They’re calling it “Energy East,” but let’s call it what it is: Keystone East. Energy East would carry 1.1 million barrels of tar sands oil a day (bpd) from Alberta to New Brunswick; this is 35 percent larger than Keystone XL. The pipeline portion of the project would traverse Canada2,850 miles (4,600 kilometers). It would convert an aging natural gas pipeline in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario (1,860 miles in length), and build new pipe in Alberta, Quebec, and New Brunswick (930 miles in length). Based on an application submitted to Canadian regulators last month, most of the oil transported by Energy East would be loaded onto more than 280 oil supertankers carrying between 1 million and 2 million barrels that will travel down the U.S. east coast. Over the course of a year, this virtual pipeline by water would move up to 328 million barrels of tar sands oil down the east coast. This project would result in an increase five times more oil tanker traffic from current oil tanker traffic along the Atlantic seaboard every year. Therefore, TransCanada’s reincarnated Keystone plan–Energy East–is not just a new pipeline project. It is a pipeline-tanker scheme that would bring millions more barrels of tar sands oil to the United States. TransCanada first announced Energy East in 2013, but project changes have delayed the completion of the project’s application. Going forward, Canada’s National Energy Board must review the application to determine whether it is complete, a process expected to be complete in Spring 2016. To be clear, Canadian regulators have so far determined not to consider the risk of tar sands spills to the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The NEB will have 15 months to complete its review of the project. TransCanada hopes to finish building Energy East in 2020. With Energy East adding hundreds of tar sands oil tankers to annual commercial vessel traffic on east coast waters, collisions would become more likely. Further south, tankers from Energy East are expected to navigate dangerously close to major population centers, entering the New York harbor en route to New Jersey refineries, and the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River en route to Delaware refineries. As the majority of tankers round the tip of Florida, they must travel close to the Florida Keys before entering the Gulf of Mexico, a pathway that could place the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary at risk, not to mention southern Florida’s significant tourism economy. Canada’s Bay of Fundy, where the tar sands supertankers would be loaded and launched, is famous for its hazardous conditions, including the world’s highest tides, dense fogs, and treacherous weather. A spill here could affect U.S. waters off Maine. Here’s what happens to tar sands oil spills in water: it sinks and causes long term toxic contamination. It is nearly impossible to clean up. This is according to the National Academy of Sciences whose December 2015 report confirms that tar sands oil (in its most common form–diluted bitumen) poses greater risks than other types of oil, leading to difficult spill response situations. The NAS concluded that first responders, governments, and industry lack the technology or expertise to effectively deal with tar sands spills. At the Canadian port of Saint John, just north of the border with Maine, Energy East would yield a near 75% increase in current outbound tanker traffic–from 380 tankers per year to 661. And the nature of the products transported would change significantly–from refined petroleum products to unrefined crude oil. This would place in harm’s way the critical feeding habitat for the 450 remaining North Atlantic right whales, as well as humpback, fin, Sei, and Minke whales, white-sided dolphins and harbor porpoises. These species are extremely vulnerable to noise pollution, ship strikes, and the threat of a severe oil spill from increased marine traffic. As Energy East’s tankers travel down the East Coast, they would move near other important habitat areas off the coasts of Cape Cod and Florida. The traffic created by the proposed pipeline places numerous ecosystems at risk, including the critical Bay of Fundy, the Gulf of Maine, the Acadia National Park, Cape Cod, and the Florida Keys. These areas host incredibly diverse wildlife that supports vibrant commercial fishing and tourism economies. Indeed, off the coast of Maine, lobstering is a multi-million dollar industry and a cultural icon for the region. But lobster are bottom-feeding organisms, and the threat posed by sinking tar sands oil to their health and the industries they support could not be more stark. Adding the equivalent of 7 million new cars to the road In addition to its effect on ocean habitat and coastal communities, Energy East stands to have significant climate consequences. In a report assessing the climate implications of the proposed pipeline, the Canadian-based Pembina Institute estimated that producing the crude needed to fill Energy East could generate up to 32 million metric tons of additional greenhouse gas emissions each year. On a lifecycle basis–from production to consumption–the oil moved by Energy East is expected to generate a staggering 220 million metric tons of greenhouse gases every year (equivalent to the annual emissions of 58 coal-fired power plants). Following the Paris climate negotiations and Canada’s support of a 1.5° Celsius warming target, Energy East’s construction would make it largely impossible for Canada to honor the emission reduction commitments this target will require. But the political landscape has changed since TransCanada publicly announced the project in 2013. Opposition to Energy East is growing in Canada, especially among First Nations, due to the pipeline’s negative environmental impacts and the risks it poses to local communities. In Quebec, where most of the new pipeline would need to be built, opposition is strong and growing. With the addition of the Montreal Greater community regional government, there are now 144 municipalities across the province in formal opposition. In neighboring Ontario, the government found the pipeline would pose significant environmental harm and bring no economic benefit to the province. Given the overwhelming opposition to the Keystone XL proposal, Americans along the East Coast–and around the country–need to better understand the ramifications of this project-including its potential impact to marine life and local industries such as commercial fishing and tourism. A tar sands spill in ocean waters from one of these massive crude carriers could devastate a local tourism economy, or a regional fishery or lobster population. It’s essential that we size up the potential risks this pipeline-tanker scheme could bring and weigh in, before it is too late.


News Article | February 5, 2016
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

The company that lost a bid to build the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline (and has filed a lawsuit against the U.S. government for $15 billion for lost profits) is eyeing to get its tar sands oil to the Gulf Coast another way: by sea. TransCanada is proposing a scheme that would start as a pipeline in Alberta terminating at Canada’s Bay of Fundy and then continue by supertanker moving tar sands through the Gulf of Maine, to Louisiana and Texas, with stops at major ports along the East coast and by the tip of Florida. So far, Canadian federal decision-makers are ignoring the risk that this proposal presents to U.S. coasts and fisheries even as the National Academy of Sciences has found that tar sands spills are more devastating than conventional oil to water sources and spill responders are unequipped for cleanups. But Canadian public opposition to the project is fierce as demonstrated by another major announcement that the City of Montreal and the Montreal Metropolitan Community representing 82 municipalities and nearly 4 million people are now officially opposed to the project. TransCanada hopes Americans won’t notice. They’re calling it “Energy East,” but let’s call it what it is: Keystone East. Energy East would carry 1.1 million barrels of tar sands oil a day (bpd) from Alberta to New Brunswick; this is 35 percent larger than Keystone XL. The pipeline portion of the project would traverse Canada2,850 miles (4,600 kilometers). It would convert an aging natural gas pipeline in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario (1,860 miles in length), and build new pipe in Alberta, Quebec, and New Brunswick (930 miles in length). Based on an application submitted to Canadian regulators last month, most of the oil transported by Energy East would be loaded onto more than 280 oil supertankers carrying between 1 million and 2 million barrels that will travel down the U.S. east coast. Over the course of a year, this virtual pipeline by water would move up to 328 million barrels of tar sands oil down the east coast. This project would result in an increase five times more oil tanker traffic from current oil tanker traffic along the Atlantic seaboard every year. Therefore, TransCanada’s reincarnated Keystone plan–Energy East–is not just a new pipeline project. It is a pipeline-tanker scheme that would bring millions more barrels of tar sands oil to the United States. TransCanada first announced Energy East in 2013, but project changes have delayed the completion of the project’s application. Going forward, Canada’s National Energy Board must review the application to determine whether it is complete, a process expected to be complete in Spring 2016. To be clear, Canadian regulators have so far determined not to consider the risk of tar sands spills to the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The NEB will have 15 months to complete its review of the project. TransCanada hopes to finish building Energy East in 2020. With Energy East adding hundreds of tar sands oil tankers to annual commercial vessel traffic on east coast waters, collisions would become more likely. Further south, tankers from Energy East are expected to navigate dangerously close to major population centers, entering the New York harbor en route to New Jersey refineries, and the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River en route to Delaware refineries. As the majority of tankers round the tip of Florida, they must travel close to the Florida Keys before entering the Gulf of Mexico, a pathway that could place the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary at risk, not to mention southern Florida’s significant tourism economy. Canada’s Bay of Fundy, where the tar sands supertankers would be loaded and launched, is famous for its hazardous conditions, including the world’s highest tides, dense fogs, and treacherous weather. A spill here could affect U.S. waters off Maine. Here’s what happens to tar sands oil spills in water: it sinks and causes long term toxic contamination. It is nearly impossible to clean up. This is according to the National Academy of Sciences whose December 2015 report confirms that tar sands oil (in its most common form–diluted bitumen) poses greater risks than other types of oil, leading to difficult spill response situations. The NAS concluded that first responders, governments, and industry lack the technology or expertise to effectively deal with tar sands spills. At the Canadian port of Saint John, just north of the border with Maine, Energy East would yield a near 75% increase in current outbound tanker traffic–from 380 tankers per year to 661. And the nature of the products transported would change significantly–from refined petroleum products to unrefined crude oil. This would place in harm’s way the critical feeding habitat for the 450 remaining North Atlantic right whales, as well as humpback, fin, Sei, and Minke whales, white-sided dolphins and harbor porpoises. These species are extremely vulnerable to noise pollution, ship strikes, and the threat of a severe oil spill from increased marine traffic. As Energy East’s tankers travel down the East Coast, they would move near other important habitat areas off the coasts of Cape Cod and Florida. The traffic created by the proposed pipeline places numerous ecosystems at risk, including the critical Bay of Fundy, the Gulf of Maine, the Acadia National Park, Cape Cod, and the Florida Keys. These areas host incredibly diverse wildlife that supports vibrant commercial fishing and tourism economies. Indeed, off the coast of Maine, lobstering is a multi-million dollar industry and a cultural icon for the region. But lobster are bottom-feeding organisms, and the threat posed by sinking tar sands oil to their health and the industries they support could not be more stark. Adding the equivalent of 7 million new cars to the road In addition to its effect on ocean habitat and coastal communities, Energy East stands to have significant climate consequences. In a report assessing the climate implications of the proposed pipeline, the Canadian-based Pembina Institute estimated that producing the crude needed to fill Energy East could generate up to 32 million metric tons of additional greenhouse gas emissions each year. On a lifecycle basis–from production to consumption–the oil moved by Energy East is expected to generate a staggering 220 million metric tons of greenhouse gases every year (equivalent to the annual emissions of 58 coal-fired power plants). Following the Paris climate negotiations and Canada’s support of a 1.5° Celsius warming target, Energy East’s construction would make it largely impossible for Canada to honor the emission reduction commitments this target will require. But the political landscape has changed since TransCanada publicly announced the project in 2013. Opposition to Energy East is growing in Canada, especially among First Nations, due to the pipeline’s negative environmental impacts and the risks it poses to local communities. In Quebec, where most of the new pipeline would need to be built, opposition is strong and growing. With the addition of the Montreal Greater community regional government, there are now 144 municipalities across the province in formal opposition. In neighboring Ontario, the government found the pipeline would pose significant environmental harm and bring no economic benefit to the province. Given the overwhelming opposition to the Keystone XL proposal, Americans along the East Coast–and around the country–need to better understand the ramifications of this project-including its potential impact to marine life and local industries such as commercial fishing and tourism. A tar sands spill in ocean waters from one of these massive crude carriers could devastate a local tourism economy, or a regional fishery or lobster population. It’s essential that we size up the potential risks this pipeline-tanker scheme could bring and weigh in, before it is too late.


« ITM Power sells 1MW electrolyzer system to ZEAG Energie | Main | ORNL achieves 90% efficiency with 20 kW wireless charging for vehicles; looking ahead to 50 kW » The City of Montreal, Canada has signed a two-year framework agreement with Cité Nissan Gabriel SEC to supply LEAF EVs for the municipal fleet. This agreement reflects the commitment of our Administration to develop the electric vehicle sector. We move from words to actions by example; electrification of part of the municipal vehicle fleet is one of the pillars of the electrification of transport strategy of the City of Montreal. The purchase of electric vehicles is a step towards achieving our goal of 30% reduction by 2020 of greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 1990. Montreal’s strategy for transportation electrification is based on the guidelines contained in the Master Plan, the Transportation Plan, the Sustainable Development Plan 2010-2015 Montreal community, and the Plan to reduce emissions of greenhouse for Montreal from 2013 to 2020. The main elements of the electrification strategy are: The City of Montreal has been a member of the public charging network Electric Circuit Hydro-Québec since 2013. The city recently installed 16 charging stations located near the convention center, following the acquisition of 50 terminals and 3 terminals for fast charging. By the end of 2016, nearly 100 charging stations that will be accessible to the public, said Elsie Lefebvre, associate Councillor responsible for electrification strategy of the City of Montreal.


Kern L.,Paris West University Nanterre La Défense | Geneau A.,University of Montréal | Laforest S.,University of Montréal | Dumas A.,University of Ottawa | And 5 more authors.
Safety Science | Year: 2014

Skateboarding is considered to be a high risk activity. Although many studies have identified risk factors associated with skateboarding injuries, few have provided detailed in-depth knowledge on participants' psychological dispositions towards risk behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify individual factors associated with risk perception and risk-taking among skateboarders. Telephone interviews were conducted with 158 skateboarders (mean age = 18.1. years) recruited in 11 Montreal skateparks. Age, self-efficacy, previous injuries, fear of being injured, sensation seeking and experience level were all included in two linear regression models that were run for risk perception and risk-taking. Age, experience level, sensation seeking, and risk perception are significant explanatory variables of risk-taking. Results show that sensation seeking was the only significant factor associated with risk perception. These results allow for a better understanding of the behavior of skateboarders, they highlight the importance of impulsive sensation seeking in risk perception as well as risk-taking. This study characterizes skateboarders who take risks and provides additional information on interventions for injury prevention. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | March 31, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« ENGIE investing €100M in CNG/LNG stations in Europe to 2020 | Main | City of Montreal signs a framework agreement for the purchase of Nissan LEAF EVs for municipal fleet » ITM Power announced the sale of a 1MW electrolyzer system with some additional equipment to ZEAG Energie AG. ITM Power currently has £11.40 million (US$16.4 million) of projects under contract and a further £7.28 million (US$10.5 million) of contracts in the final stages of negotiation constituting a total pipeline of £18.68 million (US$26.9 million). The system will comprise an electrolyzer, compressor and apparatus to fill tube trailers. The electrolyzer will have a nominal capacity of circa 0.9MW in normal operation with an overrun capability of 1MW. The system will be owned and operated by ZEAG but housed in a specially constructed building located at DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt), the German Aerospace Centre in Lampoldshausen. ITM Power is exploring a small further engineering consultancy contract to assist DLR with extended use of hydrogen facilities. The system is being supplied with a two year warranty plus a five year maintenance contract. Delivery is planned for the first quarter of 2017. ZEAG engages in the production and supply of electric power in Germany. The company generates electricity through wind power, hydropower, photovoltaics, nuclear, fossil, and other fuels. It also supplies natural gas to industrial, commercial, and residential customers in the northeastern district of Heilbronn.


Jutras P.,City of Montreal | Jutras P.,McGill University | Prasher S.O.,McGill University | Mehuys G.R.,McGill University
Transactions of the ASABE | Year: 2010

Municipal administrations annually allocate a large budget to preserve their urban trees. However, survival and growth rates of street trees vary drastically as they are strongly influenced by adverse environmental conditions. Consequently, arboricultural programs must be locally adapted to provide care to stressed trees. Artificial neural networks were used to identify poorly growing trees by learning from growth patterns detected by multivariate statistical analyses. Seven species that are representative of 75% of the Montreal street tree population were sampled: Acer platanoides L., Acer saccharinum L., Celtis occidentalis L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Gleditsia triancanthos L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Ulmus pumila L. Individuals were of different age, dissimilar morphological characteristics, and had variable distribution among urban ecological zones. Radial basis function networks (RBFs) were selected as the model type. To assess RBFs robustness and predictive capability on unknown data, global and specific cluster classification was used. When global classification was estimated, the lowest accurate prediction value was 83% and the highest 93%. The average value for all species taken together was 89%. Similarly, the classification success within groups per species was adequate. For most species, test files prediction accuracy ranged from 80% to almost 100%. This indicates that RBFs are well suited for classification decisions. These results have an impact on the management of street trees. Given the present findings, integrating robust predictive algorithms into data banks as a decision-support system is a conceivable avenue. Artificialintelligencebased models might probably become important elements of efficient street tree management plans. © 2010 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.


Cartier C.,Claro | Bannier A.,City of Montreal | Pirog M.,City of Montreal | Nour S.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Prevost M.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal
Journal - American Water Works Association | Year: 2012

This project demonstrates the efficiency of a relatively simple protocol developed to detect lead service lines (LSLs) by measuring the concentrations of lead at the tap using an onsite analyzer. Concentrations obtained with a portable anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) analyzer are successfully compared with inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) results (R 2 = 0.991). The limitations of the portable ASV for detecting particulate lead without digestion were also demonstrated. Various sampling protocols were investigated, and a field sampling protocol was developed to specifically detect LSLs in the district under study. The field protocol was then tested successfully (agreement of 96%) in other city districts by means of excavation to confirm the presence of an LSL. © 2012 American Water Works Association.


Salvo P.,Genivar Inc. | Di Fruscia T.,City of Montreal
28th International No-Dig Conference and Exhibition 2010, NO-DIG 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper will present two different types of CIPP watermain rehabilitation methods done over three projects, totalling more than 25 km of small diameter cast iron pipe, ranging from 150 mm to 350 mm. The first project began in 2008 and was completed in 2009 and consisted of the rehabilitation of approximately 10 km of watermain in 9 different boroughs of the City of Montreal. The cost of the project was approximately 6 100 000$ CAD. This first project was a traditional CIPP rehabilitation in which the pipe was cleaned, the service connections were plugged, the pipe was lined and the service connections were reinstated robotically. The second and third projects had a combined length of 15 km for a total of 17 000 000 $CAD. These two projects were unique because not only was the watermain being rehabilitated as in the first project, but the service connections were being replaced using trenchless methods where possible. A total of 650 service connections were identified for replacement because they were in lead. The project began in 2009 and will be completed in the summer of 2010. Many coordination and construction issues occurred and were overcome during the projects. These issues will be presented as well as the steps that were taken to overcome them.

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