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Center City, MN, United States

Greenfield B.L.,University of New Mexico | Venner K.L.,University of New Mexico | Kelly J.F.,Center for Addiction Medicine | Slaymaker V.,Center City | Bryan A.D.,University of New Mexico
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2012

A large proportion of emerging adults treated for substance use disorder (SUD) present with symptoms of negative affect and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known regarding how these comorbidities influence important mechanisms of treatment response, such as increases in abstinence self-efficacy (ASE). This study tested the degree to which MDD and/or depressive symptoms interacted with during-treatment changes in ASE and examined these variables' relation to outcome at 3 months' posttreatment. Participants (N = 302; 74% male) completed measures at intake, midtreatment, end-of-treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. ASE was measured with the Alcohol and Drug Use Self-Efficacy (ADUSE) scale; depressive symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI 18) Depression scale; and current MDD diagnoses were deduced from the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Random coefficient regression analyses focused on during-treatment changes in ASE, with BSI 18 scores and MDD diagnosis included as moderators. At intake, individuals with MDD or high levels of depressive symptoms had significantly lower ASE, particularly in negative affect situations. No evidence for moderation was found: ASE significantly increased during treatment regardless of MDD status. There was a main effect of BSI 18 Depression scores: those with lower BSI 18 scores had lower ASE scores at each time point. MDD and BSI 18 Depression did not predict 3-month outcome, but similar to previous findings ASE did predict abstinence status at 3 months. Treatment-seeking emerging adults with MDD merit particular clinical attention because of their lower reported self-efficacy throughout treatment. © 2011 American Psychological Association. Source

Kelly J.F.,Harvard University | Stout R.L.,Decision science Institute Providence | Slaymaker V.,Center City
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2013

Background: Participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) during and following treatment has been found to confer recovery-related benefit among adults and adolescents, but little is known about emerging adults (18-24. years). This transitional life-stage is distinctive for greater distress, higher density of psychopathology, and poorer treatment and continuing care compliance. Greater knowledge would inform the utility of treatment referrals to 12-step organizations for this age-group. Methods: Emerging adults (N=303; 18-24. years; 26% female; 95% White; 51% comorbid [SCID-derived] axis I disorders) enrolled in a naturalistic study of residential treatment effectiveness assessed at intake, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance and involvement and treatment outcomes (percent days abstinent [PDA]; percent days heavy drinking [PDHD]). Lagged hierarchical linear models (HLMs) tested whether attendance and involvement conferred recovery benefits, controlling for a variety of confounds. Results: The percentage attending 12-step meetings prior to treatment (36%) rose sharply at 3 months (89%), was maintained at 6 months (82%), but declined at 12 months (76%). Average attendance peaked at about 3 times per week at 3 months dropping to just over once per week at 12 months. Initially high, but similarly diminishing, levels of active 12-step involvement were also observed. Lagged HLMs found beneficial effects for attendance, but stronger effects, which increased over time, for active involvement. Several active 12-step involvement indices were associated individually with outcome benefits. Conclusions: Ubiquitous 12-step organizations may provide a supportive recovery context for this high-risk population at a developmental stage where non-using/sober peers are at a premium. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Bergman B.G.,Harvard University | Greene M.C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Hoeppner B.B.,Harvard University | Slaymaker V.,Center City | Kelly J.F.,Harvard University
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2014

Background: Evidence indicates that 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), can play an important role in extending and potentiating the recovery benefits of professionally delivered addiction treatment among young adults with substance use disorders (SUD). However, concerns have lingered regarding the suitability of 12-step organizations for certain clinical subgroups, such as those with dual diagnosis (DD). This study examined the influence of diagnostic status (DD vs. SUD-only) on both attendance and active involvement (e.g., having a sponsor, verbal participation during meetings) in, and derived benefits from, 12-step MHOs following residential treatment. Methods: Young adults (N = 296; 18 to 24 years old; 26% female; 95% Caucasian; 47% DD [based on structured diagnostic interview]), enrolled in a prospective naturalistic study of SUD treatment effectiveness, were assessed at intake and 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment on 12-step attendance/active involvement and percent days abstinent (PDA). t-Tests and lagged, hierarchical linear models (HLM) examined the extent to which diagnostic status influenced 12-step participation and any derived benefits, respectively. Results: For DD and SUD-only patients, posttreatment attendance and active involvement in 12-step organizations were similarly high. Overall, DD patients had significantly lower PDA relative to SUD-only patients. All patients appeared to benefit significantly from attendance and active involvement on a combined 8-item index. Regarding the primary effects of interest, significant differences did not emerge in derived benefit between DD and SUD-only patients for either attendance (p = 0.436) or active involvement (p = 0.062). Subsidiary analyses showed, however, that DD patients experienced significantly greater abstinence-related benefit from having a 12-step sponsor. Conclusions: Despite concerns regarding the clinical utility of 12-step MHOs for DD patients, findings indicate that DD young adults participate and benefit as much as SUD-only patients, and may benefit more from high levels of active involvement, particularly having a 12-step sponsor. Future work is needed to clarify how active 12-step involvement might offset the additional recovery burden of a comorbid mental illness on substance use outcomes. © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism. Source

Kelly J.F.,Harvard University | Stout R.L.,Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation | Greene M.C.,Harvard University | Slaymaker V.,Center City
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Social factors play a key role in addiction recovery. Research with adults indicates individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) benefit from mutual-help organizations (MHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous, via their ability to facilitate adaptive network changes. Given the lower prevalence of sobriety-conducive, and sobriety-supportive, social contexts in the general population during the life-stage of young adulthood, however, 12-step MHOs may play an even more crucial recovery-supportive social role for young adults, but have not been investigated. Greater knowledge could enhance understanding of recovery-related change and inform young adults' continuing care recommendations. Methods: Emerging adults (N = 302; 18-24 yrs; 26% female; 95% White) enrolled in a study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance, peer network variables ("high [relapse] risk" and "low [relapse] risk" friends), and treatment outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent; Percent Days Heavy Drinking). Hierarchical linear models tested for change in social risk over time and lagged mediational analyses tested whether 12-step attendance conferred recovery benefits via change in social risk. Results: High-risk friends were common at treatment entry, but decreased during follow-up; low-risk friends increased. Contrary to predictions, while substantial recovery-supportive friend network changes were observed, this was unrelated to 12-step participation and, thus, not found to mediate its positive influence on outcome. Conclusions: Young adult 12-step participation confers recovery benefit; yet, while encouraging social network change, 12-step MHOs may be less able to provide social network change directly for young adults, perhaps because similar-aged peers are less common in MHOs. Findings highlight the importance of both social networks and 12-step MHOs and raise further questions as to how young adults benefit from 12-step MHOs. © 2014 Kelly et al. Source

Bergman B.G.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Bergman B.G.,Harvard University | Greene M.C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Slaymaker V.,Center City | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment | Year: 2014

Compared to other life stages, young adulthood (ages 18-24) is characterized by qualitative differences including the highest rates of co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders (COD). Little is known, however, regarding young adults' response to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, especially those with COD. Greater knowledge in this area could inform and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of SUD care for this patient population. The current study investigated differences between 141 COD and 159 SUD-only young adults attending psychiatrically-integrated residential SUD treatment on intake characteristics, during-treatment changes on clinical targets (e.g., coping skills; abstinence self-efficacy), and outcomes during the year post-discharge. Contrary to expectations, despite more severe clinical profiles at intake, COD patients showed similar during-treatment improvements on clinical target variables, and comparable post-treatment abstinence rates and psychiatric symptoms. Clinicians referring young adults with COD to specialized care may wish to consider residential SUD treatment programs that integrate evidence-based psychiatric services. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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