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Shirgure P.S.,Central Citrus Research Institute | Srivastava A.K.,Central Citrus Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

A field experiment on different arrangement of emitters in surface micro irrigation system in 14-16 years old Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) was conducted during 2010-2013 at the research farm of National Research Centre for Citrus, Nagpur. Four different treatments were used, viz. T1-4 lph six emitters/plant in hexagonal arrangement, T2-4 lph three emitters on double lateral arrangement at 1 spacing T3-4 lph eight emitters on single lateral in octagonal arrangement and T4-3 lph inline emitters at 0.75 m spacing on the lateral and double lateral arrangement 3 feet apart from trunk. Each treatment combination had different emitter placement and different irrigation interval with same water quantity. The average quantity of water applied different emitters arrangement of drip irrigation systems varied from 78.2 to 108.2 l/day/plant with 4 lph eight emitters on single lateral in octagonal arrangement during 2010-2013. The higher and uniform soil moisture distribution and plant canopy volume was observed in 4 lph eight emitters on single lateral in octagonal arrangement (84.96 m3) followed in 4 lph six emitters on single lateral in hexagonal arrangement (81.87 m3). The results indicated that the moisture distribution and yield was higher (28.78 tonnes/ha) under treatment with 4 lph eight emitters on single lateral in octagonal arrangement followed by treatment with 3 lph inline emitters at 0.75 m spacing on the lateral and double lateral arrangement 3 feet apart from trunk (27.26 tonnes/ha). The TSS to acidity ratio was the highest (13.9) with treatment 3 lph inline emitters at 0.75 m spacing on the lateral and double lateral arrangement 3 feet apart from trunk followed by with 4 lph eight emitters on single lateral in octagonal arrangement (12.4) of drip irrigation system. For higher yield and quality mandarin fruits the 4 lph (8 per plant) on single lateral is suggested.


Wu Q.-S.,Yangtze University | Srivastava A.K.,Yangtze University | Srivastava A.K.,Central Citrus Research Institute | Wang S.,Yangtze University | Zeng J.-X.,Yangtze University
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Mycorrhization-induced secretion of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is known to contribute in improving soil fertility and aggregate stability. But, there is hardly any evidence that exogenous GRSP could produce the similar type of response. The present study was, therefore, carried out to extract easily extractable GRSP (EE-GRSP) from citrus rhizosphere soils and evaluate the response at 1/4, 1/2 and full strength EE-GRSP solutions watered into the rhizosphere of 27-year-old Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) grafted on the rootstock of Poncirus trifoliata. After & sim5 months, exogenous EE-GRSP treatments produced significantly positive responses on endogenous EE-GRSP, difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), total GRSP production and soil organic carbon (SOC) content. A significantly positive correlation of these endogenous GRSP fractions with SOC indicated an active participation of GRSP on soil C pool. Exogenous GRSP showed a key role in binding water-stable aggregate (WSA) at 2-4, 1-2, 0.5-1, and 0.25-0.5 mm size and enhancing WSA stability through changes in mean weight diameter (MWD). A stronger correlation of EE-GRSP and total GRSP with MWD was observed than DE-GRSP fraction. On the other hand, exogenous EE-GRSP showed a positive effect on soil phosphatase activity, and soil endogenous EE-GRSP was significantly and positively correlated only with neutral phosphatase. Our studies suggest that exogenous EE-GRSP could be used as an effective regulator to affect soil fertility and soil structure within citrus rhizosphere. © 2015, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Zou Y.-N.,Yangtze University | Srivastava A.K.,Central Citrus Research Institute | Wu Q.-S.,Yangtze University
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2016

Glomalin, a special glycoprotein secreted by hyphae and spore walls of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), possesses some diverse characteristics, of them its hydrophobic nature and stability to heat are most profound. Glomalin sloughs off cementing material following the hyphal degradation that coat soil organic matter and soil particles, thereby, forming a protective surface layer against loss of water and nutrients from soil aggregates. These properties of glomalin would influence plant and/or soil water relations. Assessed through Braford assay, glomalin contains proteins of non-AMF and AMF origin, in addition to large amount of soil-related heat-stable proteins, collectively defined as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) in soils. In perennial fruits, GRSP concentration has been observed up to 1 mg/g DW soil, which is strongly affected by physiography, soil management practices, and season. GRSP represents a type of glue agent that stabilizes soil aggregates, as one of the fractions of soil organic matter in perennial fruit orchards. There is an increasing demand to discern whether the functionings of exogenous GRSP application is similar to those of endogenously synthesized GRSP. These accrued results provide strong support in favour of glomalin as a potential soil conditioner that holds promise in perennial fruits. This review also makes an attempt to address the future lines of research on glomalin-related issues. © 2016 Friends Science Publishers.

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