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Charleston, United States

The polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum produces two larval castes, soldiers and reproductives, during development within its caterpillar host. Primary structures were determined for 6 odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene family members in Copidosoma and then analyzed alongside two formerly sequenced OBP genes from this wasp. The genes were examined for caste-bias in expression patterns using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ expression studies. Six of the 8 genes show a clear bias in gene expression towards one or the other larval caste. Of the 3 distinct in situ probe hybridization patterns observed in this study, none lie in tissues with clear chemosensory functions. Two of the patterns suggest the majority of the Copidosoma OBP gene family members discovered thus far come into contact with host hemolymph. Most of these OBPs are expressed exclusively in the serosal membrane encompassing each of the reproductive larvae. The absence of expression in the membrane surrounding soldier larvae strongly suggests these OBPs are performing caste-specific functions in the host. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Frick M.G.,Friends of the National Zoo | Zardus J.D.,Citadel | Lazo-Wasem E.A.,Yale University
Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History | Year: 2010

A new species of the commensal barnacle genus Stomatolepas has been collected from leatherback turtles in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is described here as S. pilsbryi n. sp. and compared to its congeners S. elegans (Costa, 1838) and S. praegustator Pilsbry, 1910. A neotype is also designated for S. elegans. © 2010 Peabody Museum of Natural History. Source

Clark R.J.,Citadel
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2013

We present designs for multipole ion traps based on a set of planar, annular, concentric electrodes which require only rf potentials to confine ions. We illustrate the desirable properties of the traps by considering a few simple cases of confined ions. We predict that mm-scale surface traps may have trap depths as high as tens of electron volts when parameters of a magnitude common in the field are chosen. Under similar conditions, micromotion amplitudes in a 2D ion crystal as low as tens of nanometers could be realized. Several example traps are studied, and the scaling of those properties with voltage, frequency, and trap scale, for small numbers of ions, is derived. Applications of these traps include quantum information science, frequency metrology, and cold ion-atom collisions. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Gramling J.M.,Citadel
Southeastern Naturalist | Year: 2010

Laurel Wilt is caused by a recently identified fungal pathogen infecting plants in the Lauraceae. Laurel Wilt is transmitted by Xyleborus glabratus (Redbay Ambrosia Beetle), which was recently introduced to the southeastern United States from Asia. As the insect expands its range in the US, so too has the disease. A query of the NatureServe Explorer database was used to identify the conservation status of native plant species and recognized plant communities that may be affected by Laurel Wilt. Laurel Wilt affects at least nine plant species, and all fifteen species in the Lauraceae currently found in North America may ultimately prove to be hosts for the disease. Four of the twelve native lauraceous species had been identified as vulnerable to extirpation or extinction, prior to the introduction of Laurel Wilt. There are 55 plant communities in the US and Canada that have a member of the Lauraceae as a dominant or diagnostic species. The majority of these plant communities have been identified as vulnerable. Agricultural industries that are based upon Persea americana (Avocado) cultivation in Florida and California are threatened by Laurel Wilt as well. Given the potential impact of this disease on lauraceous plants and their associated communities, these taxa and assemblages should be monitored for the arrival and impact of Laurel Wilt. Source

Zardus J.D.,Citadel
Integrative and Comparative Biology | Year: 2012

Synopsis Barnacles have evolved a number of specialized features peculiar for crustaceans: they produce a calcified, external shell; they exhibit sexual strategies involving dioecy and androdioecy; and some have become internal parasites of other Crustacea. The thoroughly sessile habit of adults also belies the highly mobile and complex nature of their larval stages. Given these and other remarkable innovations in their natural history, it is perhaps not surprising that barnacles present a spectrum of opportunities for study. This symposium integrates research on barnacles in the areas of larval biology, biofouling, reproduction, biogeography, speciation, population genetics, ecological genomics, and phylogenetics. Pioneering comparisons are presented of metamorphosis among barnacles from three major lineages. Biofouling is investigated from the perspectives of biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms. Tradeoffs in reproductive specializations are scrutinized through theoretical modeling and empirical validation. Patterns of endemism and diversity are delineated in Australia and intricate species boundaries in the genus Chthamalus are elucidated for the Indo-Pacific. General methodological concerns with population expansion studies in crustaceans are highlighted using barnacle models. Data from the first, draft barnacle genome are employed to examine location-specific selection. Lastly, barnacle evolution is framed in a deep phylogenetic context and hypothetical origins of defined characters are outlined and tested. © The Author 2012. Source

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