Chambéry, France
Chambéry, France
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Le Vu B.,ParisTech National School of Bridges and Roads | Vincon-Leite B.,ParisTech National School of Bridges and Roads | Lemaire B.J.,ParisTech National School of Bridges and Roads | Bensoussan N.,University Paris Diderot | And 15 more authors.
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2011

Large, sub-alpine, stratified lakes are directly within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and need adapted monitoring systems. Moreover, anthropogenic eutrophication was frequently the main cause of their water quality degradation in the 20th century. This paper is primarily aimed at demonstrating how in situ sensor-equipped buoys could be the base of monitoring designs to support the WFD objectives. The core of this paper, mainly methodological, focuses on single-depth, high frequency (4 per hour) fluorescence measurements. It shows that the internal wave pattern provides additional information to the single-depth time series to assess phytoplankton dynamics in a stratified water column displaying strong, vertical biomass heterogeneity. The paper deals with the following three aspects: (1) definition of an indicator to determine whether or not the sensor actually detects the metalimnetic fluorescence peak, (2) vertical representation of chlorophyll distribution from single-depth series; (3) time evolution of the fluorescence peak (maximum value, depth and associated temperature, peak width). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bryhn A.C.,Uppsala University | Girel C.,CISALB | Paolini G.,CISALB | Jacquet S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2010

Like many temperate European lakes, Lake Bourget (France) has suffered from eutrophication during the second half of the last century. Due to a remarkable restoration program, the lake has been recovering for the past 25 years after a massive decrease in total phosphorus (TP) loading. TP concentrations have decreased from about 100-120 to 20-25 μg/L. Additional efforts are, however, still required to obtain a perennially sustainable good ecological status and model parameterisation of fluxes can assist in predicting future outcomes, especially in the context of global warming. In this paper, a dynamic model (MeroLakeMab) was developed and tested with the purpose to reconstruct the loading history of Lake Bourget and to predict TP concentrations during scenarios of increased temperature, decreased water runoff and decreased P loading. Simulations suggested that the historical TP loading decrease may have been as extensive as 88%. Decreases in water discharge to Lake Bourget at magnitudes forecasted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would not affect TP concentrations notably, but marked concentration changes could, however, occur if decreases in runoff would have a strong impact on the TP loading. Increasing temperature effects on yearly mean TP concentrations in the water column would be very small compared to effects from changes in the TP loading. Predictions such as these could be instrumental for future successful lake management. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yule D.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Evrard L.M.,U.S. Geological Survey | Cachera S.,CISALB | Colon M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Guillard J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2013

We sampled Lake Bourget (surface area = 44 km2) using CEN standard gillnet and provisional standard acoustic survey methods over 3 years (2005, 2010 and 2011) as the fish community responded to re-oligotrophication. A total of 16 species were caught in benthic gillnets and three species in pelagic gillnets. Lake Bourget results were consistent with a recent study (Emmrich et al., Freshwater Biology, 57, 2012, 2436) showing strong correspondence between average biomass-per-unit-effort (BPUE) in standard benthic gillnets and average acoustic volume backscattering when smaller lakes (0.25-5.45 km2) were treated as sample units. The BPUE of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) measured by benthic gillnets all declined significantly with increasing bathymetric depth; 93% of nets set at depths >50 m caught zero fish. Pelagic gillnetting indicated that small (<10 cm) perch and small (<12.5 cm) roach occupied the upper pelagic habitat (0-20 m depths) and that whitefish were predominant in deeper pelagic habitat. The acoustic sampling showed fish biomass in the upper pelagic habitat varied significantly by year. Biomass there was highest in 2010 when a strong perch year-class recruited and lowest in 2011 when recruitment levels of perch and roach were both weak. Whitefish biomass in deep pelagic habitat (>20 m) increased significantly after 2005. Both surveys showed whitefish biomass increased significantly during the study, but whitefish ≥25 cm were poorly represented in benthic gillnet catches. Contrary to the acoustic findings, the BPUE of perch and roach in benthic gillnets did not vary significantly over time. This metric is insensitive to changes in size structure in that a high catch of small fish and a low catch of large fish in different years can provide similar average BPUE estimates. We examined correlations between BPUE in benthic gillnets and acoustic methods at fine spatial scales by averaging acoustic backscattering measurements encompassed by buffers of varying size (250-2000 m) around individual gillnets and by averaging samples collected from lake quadrants. Correlations at fines scales were generally poor, and only in 1 year was the quadrant correlation significant. The lack of correlation can be explained, in part, by the two gears sampling different components of the fish community. Conversely, in pelagic habitat, where the fish community was simpler, we found BPUE in pelagic nets to be strongly correlated with acoustic backscattering. With respect to large lakes like Lake Bourget, we hypothesise that the congruence in average biomass measurements provided by these two survey methods occurs because these different community components are responding similarly to a common driver like lake trophic status (or possibly multiple drivers operating in synergy). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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