Chen S.,CIS International
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
Although it remains one of the most volatile maritime areas of the world, the South China Sea has witnessed an increasing level of environmental cooperation since the 1990s, culminating in the development and implementation of the South China Sea Project, an inter-governmental project implemented by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). This paper seeks to explain why environmental cooperation occurred in such a sensitive and contentious region and contends that UNEP played a critical role in facilitating and brokering environmental cooperation. Through an analysis of the motivations, strategies and interactions among the three main actors, namely UNEP, China and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), this article argues that environmental cooperation was deemed an instrument to facilitate the exchange and sharing of information not only for environmental protection but also for political purposes. While countries were trying to consolidate their sovereign claims, they still shared a desire to sustain a peaceful regional environment to promote the kind of prosperous economic development that the region has enjoyed in recent decades. Countries were actively looking for less sensitive "issues" in which they could cooperate without jeopardizing any sovereignty claims. Marine environmental problems provided such an issue.UNEP, with its distinctive symbolic power as a United Nations agency, played an instrumental and inductive role in mediating and facilitating environmental cooperation in the region. On the one hand, UNEP has played an instrumental role in promoting regional cooperation by helping countries to address common marine environmental problems and promoting confidence building measures between ASEAN countries and China. On the other hand, by framing environmental protection as a neutral and apolitical issue, UNEP has been able to induce the neighbouring countries to the negotiating table. This has internationalized environmental protection in the South China Sea, making non-participation in these cooperative efforts potentially problematic because it could reduce the prominence of a country's territorial claims. In this sense, UNEP has been able to play an inductive role to foster cooperation. The paper attempts to identify the sources of UNEP's influence, and give an account of the various roles and functions of UNEP that made environmental cooperation a reality under conditions that originally appeared untenable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Chen S.,CIS International |
Pernetta J.C.,35 323 Yingrouwes Niwet |
Duda A.M.,University of Great Falls
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
Large-scale international waters management projects usually focus on fostering formal inter-governmental cooperation processes, which often lead to limited on-the-ground impact. In contrast, community-based international waters projects are often local, individualistic and stand-alone projects, lacking regional linkages and perspectives. Consequently a gap exists between regional and local processes and their outcomes. Linking regional processes with local actions not only enhances the effectiveness of local actions in addressing international waters issues but also strengthens regional frameworks. The paper calls for adopting an integrated management approach to international waters management by incorporating local actions into regional international waters management frameworks.This article draws experiences and lessons learnt from the partnership between the GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP) and the SCS project in the integration of regional and local actions. In particular, it evaluates the experiences derived from thirty one small grant projects at the community level that were specifically designed to address priority issues identified in the regional SCS/SAP and outlines the process used for their identification and selection. The paper highlights the critical importance of engaging local communities in regional environmental governance and presents the outcomes in terms of the extent to which these small local actions have contributed towards regionally-defined goals and targets. The paper advocates a paradigm shift on the part of international donors such as the GEF from focussing either on regional intergovernmental cooperation or on community actions at the local level to an approach that fosters the development of regional frameworks of action within which local actions can be identified and supported. The positive experiences of the SCS and SGP partnership suggest that this is a suitable model for replication in other shared water bodies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Jin X.,Florida International University |
Pissinou N.,CIS International |
Pumpichet S.,Florida International University |
Kamhoua C.A.,Air Force Research Lab |
Kwiat K.,Air Force Research Lab
Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN | Year: 2013
As new mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (mWSNs) for location-aware applications are emerging, trajectory privacy invasion is becoming an indispensable issue. Many promising techniques are under development. Considering the decentralized network architecture, most of Trajectory Privacy Preservation (TPP) techniques rely on the cooperation from peer nodes, cluster headers, or a third party. However, only a few works have addressed the issue of selfish behaviors in such cooperation required techniques. Nevertheless, the problem of facing selfish and compromised nodes in the noncooperative and hostile environment is rarely touched. In this paper, we apply Bayesian game theory to model cooperative, selfish and malicious behaviors of autonomous mobile nodes in decentralized mWSNs. We formulate and analyze the TPP game among peer nodes in both strategic and dynamic forms. The equilibrium strategies for users to evaluate the degree of trust in participating in in-network TPP activities are provided and analyzed in theoretical and simulation results. © 2013 IEEE.
Bossio D.,SRI International |
Geheb K.,International Water Management Institute |
Critchley W.,CIS International
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010
The premise of this paper is that the key to effective water resources management is understanding that the water cycle and land management are inextricably linked: that every land use decision is a water use decision. Gains in agricultural water productivity, therefore, will only be obtained alongside improvements in land use management. Expected increases in food demands by 2050 insist that agricultural production - and agricultural water use - must increase. At the same time, competition for water between agricultural and urban sectors will also increase; and the problem is further compounded by land degradation. A global survey suggests that 40% of agricultural land is already degraded to the point that yields are greatly reduced, and a further 9% is degraded to the point that it cannot be reclaimed for productive use by farm level measures. Soil erosion, nutrient depletion and other forms of land degradation reduce water productivity and affect water availability, quality, and storage. Reversing these trends entails tackling the underlying social, economic, political and institutional drivers of unsustainable land use. This paper is based on a review of global experiences, and its recommendations for improving water management by addressing land degradation include focusing on small scale agriculture; investing in rehabilitating degraded land to increase water productivity; and enhancing the multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes. These options can improve water management and water productivity, while also improving the livelihoods of the rural poor. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.23M | Year: 2010
Two-photon absorption is a photophysical process with diverse applications in medicine (photodynamic therapy), neurophysiology, cell biology (microscopy, photo-activated drugs) and biomedical engineering (fabrication of micro-needle arrays and tissue scaffolds). Many of these applications will only have a major impact when better dyes become available with stronger two-photon absorption, as well as improved secondary properties (photostability, biocompatibility, etc). Advances in optical engineering will also be critical. Two-photon absorption is an important newly emerging supra-discipline at the intersection of Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Engineering. This network will be the first initiative of its kind in this area. TOPBIO will train young researchers in many different aspects of the field, by coupling together research groups with internationally recognized expertise in synthesis, molecular design, theory, photophysics, photobiology, cell biology, engineering, nanotechnology, microscopy and laser physics. We aim not only to train ESR and ER in an interdisciplinary manner but also (by developing new generations of functional dyes and applying them in real biomedical applications) to improve the quality of life in Europe and to strengthen the EU economy. TOPBIO will provide an excellent mechanism for promoting interdisciplinary training, by exchanging PhD students on secondments between collaborating laboratories, through regular progress meetings, workshops and tutorial schools. TOPBIO brings together leading experts from universities and private sector organizations across Europe. It has an exceptional ratio of private to academic partners (1:2). The perfect match of complementary expertise, multidisciplinarity, high involvement of companies and focus on the real needs of society will enable us to deliver high quality training in skills which are perfectly matched to the needs of future employers, thus producing a workforce which will be in high demand.