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Mathura, India

Das A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Smith M.L.,Assam State Zoo and Botanical Garden | Saini M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Katole S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Zoo Biology | Year: 2014

In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW0.75/day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P<0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. Zoo Biol. 34:60-70, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

The martensitic transformation of a Cu-Zn-Al single crystal was measured in a differential scanning calorimeter at different heating rates. The curves were analyzed in order to detect the initial and final temperatures of the transition. The results were analyzed using both, the method suggested by Benke et al. and the conventional method of extrapolating the temperatures to zero rate. They were also compared with those determined in the same calorimetric sample using the electrical resistance measurement. It is concluded that the transition happens in a range higher than that detected by calorimetry and that the inflexion point is not a useful point for a proper temperature determination. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Baqir M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bhushan S.,CIRG | Kumar A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sonawane A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

In the present study, polymorphisms at two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one microsatellite locus of SLC11A1 gene were investigated for finding their association with susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis trait (tuberculin reaction) in Indian cattle. A total of 245 animals were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test for screening positive animals for tuberculin reaction. At rs109915208 locus very low polymorphism information content of 0.0454 was observed, whereas it was moderate (0.352) at rs109453173 locus of SLC11A1. At rs109915208 locus the genotypic as well as allelic frequencies were differing significantly (p-value <.05) in case-control animals where the odds ratio (OR) of CC verses CT genotype and the OR of C verses T allele were approaching towards infinity, suggesting that animals having CT genotype and T allele were less susceptible for tuberculin reaction as compared to their contemporary genotype/allele. The significantly associated SNP was non-synonymous causing an amino acid change. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Rout P.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Kaushik R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Ramachandran N.,CIRG
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2016

It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36–89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at −70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5–2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5.29 and 2.63-fold higher expression than control. Liver and brain tissues showed the highest gene expression at mRNA levels as compared to kidney, spleen and heart. HST individuals had higher levels of mRNA level expression than HSS individuals in all breeds. The Sirohi breed showed the highest (6.3-fold) mRNA expression levels as compared to the other three breeds, indicating the better heat stress regulation activity in the breed. © 2016, Cell Stress Society International. Source

Qureshi M.A.,CIRG | Qureshi M.A.,University of Milan Bicocca | O'Riordan C.,CIRG | Pasi G.,University of Milan Bicocca
SIGIR 2014 - Proceedings of the 37th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval | Year: 2014

The result set from a search engine for any user's query may exhibit an inherent perspective due to issues with the search engine or issues with the underlying collection. This demonstration paper presents a system that allows users to specify at query time a perspective together with their query. The system then presents results from well-known search engines with a visualization of the results which allows the users to quickly surmise the presence of the perspective in the returned set. Source

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