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Das A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Smith M.L.,Assam State Zoo and Botanical Garden | Saini M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Katole S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Zoo Biology | Year: 2014

In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW0.75/day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P<0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. Zoo Biol. 34:60-70, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Qureshi M.A.,CIRG | Qureshi M.A.,University of Milan Bicocca | O'Riordan C.,CIRG | Pasi G.,University of Milan Bicocca
SIGIR 2014 - Proceedings of the 37th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval | Year: 2014

The result set from a search engine for any user's query may exhibit an inherent perspective due to issues with the search engine or issues with the underlying collection. This demonstration paper presents a system that allows users to specify at query time a perspective together with their query. The system then presents results from well-known search engines with a visualization of the results which allows the users to quickly surmise the presence of the perspective in the returned set.


The martensitic transformation of a Cu-Zn-Al single crystal was measured in a differential scanning calorimeter at different heating rates. The curves were analyzed in order to detect the initial and final temperatures of the transition. The results were analyzed using both, the method suggested by Benke et al. and the conventional method of extrapolating the temperatures to zero rate. They were also compared with those determined in the same calorimetric sample using the electrical resistance measurement. It is concluded that the transition happens in a range higher than that detected by calorimetry and that the inflexion point is not a useful point for a proper temperature determination. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pathak J.,C.I.R.G. | Kharche S.D.,C.I.R.G. | Goel A.K.,C.I.R.G. | Jindal S.K.,C.I.R.G.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different activation treatments of in vitro matured oocytes and their developmental potency in potassium simplex optimization medium. Ovaries were collected from the local abattoir and transported within 4h to the laboratory in warm saline (37°C) containing 100IU penicillin-G and 100μg streptomycin sulphate per ml. A total of 1004 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC's) were collected from 454 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing FSH (5μg/ml), LH (10μg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1μg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 3mg/ml BSA at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27h. After 27h of IVM, oocytes were denuded, washed and selected 933 in vitro matured oocytes were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 in vitro matured oocytes (n=579), were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5min followed by treatment with 2.0mM DMAP for 4h in KSOM. Group 2 in vitro matured oocytes (n=145) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5min followed by treatment with 10μg/ml CHX for 4h in KSOM. Group 3 in vitro matured oocytes (n=100) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5min followed by treatment with 2.0mM DMAP and 10μg/ml CHX for 4h in KSOM. Group 4 in vitro matured oocytes (n=109) were cultured for 4h without any chemical activation treatment in KSOM medium (control). After 4h of culture in different chemicals, the oocytes were washed five to ten times in the culture medium (KSOM) and cultured in 50μl drops of KSOM. Development of activated oocytes was observed at every 48h till day 10 post activation under an inverted phase contrast microscope (200x, Nikon, Japan). The cleavage rate in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 42.83%, 58.62%, 74.0% and 0.00%, respectively and morula production in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 24.59%, 30.58% and 31.08%, respectively. These results indicated that the activation of in vitro matured oocytes by 7% ethanol for 5min followed by treatment with 2.0mM DMAP and 10μg/ml CHX for 4h in KSOM is most favorable for parthenogenetic caprine embryos production. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kharche S.D.,C.I.R.G. | Goel A.K.,C.I.R.G. | Jindal S.K.,C.I.R.G. | Jha B.K.,C.I.R.G. | Goel P.,C.I.R.G.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different concentrations of ethanol treatment for activation of oocytes and their developmental potency in vitro. Ovaries were collected from a local abattoir and transported within 4h to the laboratory in warm saline (37°C) containing 100IU penicillin-G and 100μg streptomycin sulphate per ml. A total of 2680 cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from 899 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing FSH (5μg/ml), LH (10μg/ml), supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27h. After 27h of IVM, oocytes were denuded, washed and randomly divided into five groups. Group 1 consisted of in vitro matured oocytes (n=403) as control which were washed with KSOM medium without ethanol. Group 2 consisted of in vitro matured oocytes (n=412) activated with 1% ethanol for 5min in KSOM medium. Group 3 was comprised of in vitro matured oocytes (n=362), activated with 1% ethanol for 5min in KSOM medium. Group 4 was comprised of in vitro matured oocytes (n=564) activated with 5% ethanol for 5min in KSOM medium. Group 5 consisted of in vitro matured oocytes (n=634) activated with 7% ethanol for 5min in KSOM medium. Group 6 consisted of in vitro matured oocytes (n=305) activated with 9% ethanol for 5min in KSOM medium. After 5min activation, the oocytes were washed 5-10 times in the culture medium (KSOM) and cultured in 50μl drop of KSOM. Development of activated oocytes was observed at every 24h till day 10 post insemination under inverted phase contrast microscope (200×, Nikon, Japan). The percentage of cleavage and morula production in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 0.00% and 0.00%, 0.00% and 0.00%, 8.28% and 6.66%, 10.43% and 26.31%, 33.19% and 29.26%, 40.32% and 14.63%, respectively. These results suggested that the activation of in vitro matured oocytes by 7% ethanol for 5min in KSOM is most favorable for parthenogenetic caprine embryos production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Baqir M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bhushan S.,CIRG | Kumar A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sonawane A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

In the present study, polymorphisms at two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one microsatellite locus of SLC11A1 gene were investigated for finding their association with susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis trait (tuberculin reaction) in Indian cattle. A total of 245 animals were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test for screening positive animals for tuberculin reaction. At rs109915208 locus very low polymorphism information content of 0.0454 was observed, whereas it was moderate (0.352) at rs109453173 locus of SLC11A1. At rs109915208 locus the genotypic as well as allelic frequencies were differing significantly (p-value <.05) in case-control animals where the odds ratio (OR) of CC verses CT genotype and the OR of C verses T allele were approaching towards infinity, suggesting that animals having CT genotype and T allele were less susceptible for tuberculin reaction as compared to their contemporary genotype/allele. The significantly associated SNP was non-synonymous causing an amino acid change. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Rout P.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Kaushik R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Ramachandran N.,CIRG
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2016

It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36–89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at −70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5–2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5.29 and 2.63-fold higher expression than control. Liver and brain tissues showed the highest gene expression at mRNA levels as compared to kidney, spleen and heart. HST individuals had higher levels of mRNA level expression than HSS individuals in all breeds. The Sirohi breed showed the highest (6.3-fold) mRNA expression levels as compared to the other three breeds, indicating the better heat stress regulation activity in the breed. © 2016, Cell Stress Society International.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats and CIRG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell stress & chaperones | Year: 2016

It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36-89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at -70C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5-2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5.29 and 2.63-fold higher expression than control. Liver and brain tissues showed the highest gene expression at mRNA levels as compared to kidney, spleen and heart. HST individuals had higher levels of mRNA level expression than HSS individuals in all breeds. The Sirohi breed showed the highest (6.3-fold) mRNA expression levels as compared to the other three breeds, indicating the better heat stress regulation activity in the breed.


PubMed | CIRG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2012

The allelic distributions of the CSN1S1 (s1-casein) in the Indian goats are quite different from European goat breeds. Majority of Indian goat breeds and non-descript goats carry A, B, E and F alleles at s1-casein locus, as found by analysing both DNA and protein levels. However, A and B alleles, known to be associated with better casein yield, were observed in the highest proportion in all the Indian goat breeds. Gene frequency and breed heterozygosity were computed for the CSN1S1 gene. The gene frequency of allele A in Indian goats varies from 0.68 to 1.00 and allele B varies from 0.098 to 0.23. Allele F was observed in Beetal, Marwari, Chegu and non-descript goats of MP (Local MP) in less than 1% of population. The expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.141 to 0.506 over the population. The Beetal breed showed the highest gene diversity (0.506) followed by Jamunapari (0.395), Chegu (0.383) and Jakhrana (0.381) breeds. Therefore, the variability at CSN1S1 locus can be utilised for conservation as well as for genetic improvement of Indian goat breeds for increasing both the quality and quantity of milk production.

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