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Fligor S.C.,Circle Technology
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Hyperparathyroidism is common in critical illness. Intact parathyroid hormone has a half-life of 3 to 5 minutes due to rapid clearance by the liver, kidneys, and bone. In hemorrhagic shock, decreased clearance may occur, thus making parathyroid hormone a potential early marker for hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that early hyperparathyroidism predicts mortality and transfusion in trauma patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed at a Level 1 trauma center in consecutive adult patients receiving the highest level of trauma team activation. Parathyroid hormone and lactic acid were added to the standard laboratory panel drawn in the trauma bay on arrival, prior to the administration of any blood products. The primary outcomes assessed were transfusion in 24 hours and mortality. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were included. Median age was 47 years old, 82.6% were male, 15.2% suffered penetrating trauma, and 21.7% died. Patients who were transfused in the first 24 hours (n=17) had higher parathyroid hormone (182.0 vs. 73.5 pg/mL, p<0.001) and lactic acid (4.6 vs. 2.3 mmol/L, p=0.001). Patients who did not survive to discharge (n=10) also had higher parathyroid hormone (180.3 vs. 79.3 pg/mL, p<0.001) and lactic acid (5.5 vs. 2.5 mmol/L, p=0.001). For predicting transfusion in the first 24 hours, parathyroid hormone has an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.876 compared to 0.793 for lactic acid and 0.734 for systolic blood pressure. Parathyroid hormone has an AUC of 0.875 for predicting mortality, compared to 0.835 for lactic acid and 0.732 for systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperparathyroidism on hospital arrival in trauma patients predicts mortality and transfusion in the first 24 hours. Further research should investigate the value of parathyroid hormone as an endpoint for resuscitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II TYPE OF STUDY: Prognostic © 2017 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


Lin W.,Circle Technology
Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference | Year: 2015

One of the current trends for advanced packages is increasingly thinner packaging for mobile devices. Thin packages increase warpage tremendously making control of package warpage very critical and challenging. Furthermore, a thin package is also much more sensitive to various factors including incoming conditions, processing conditions and nonlinear material behaviors. As a result, current warpage models based purely on the finite element method (FEM) have difficulty accurately predicting the warpage of packages in an actual production environment because the models are not able to capture all the complicated process issues as well as material nonlinearities. On the other hand, current advanced packages are mostly custom built with fast development cycles. Avoiding problems requires a feasible method to predict warpage during the package development stage to guide the design improvement. This paper presents a new feasible method to accurately predict package actual warpage in production based on a finite element model integrated with empirical shadow moiré warpage data. The unique aspect of this method uses existing empirical warpage data from a broad range of different package types and design parameters to estimate the actual reference temperature point as well as an initial warpage as inputs into the FEM warpage simulation model. The adjusted actual reference temperature and the initial warpage are used to account for any warpage caused by unknown factors in the assembly processes and materials which cannot be captured by the FEM model. Through the product development cycle, the semi-empirical warpage model is continually updated as more and more new empirical data are available making it more and more accurate for next-cycle predictions. This paper uses a Package-On-Package (POP) and a flip-chip Chip-Scale-Package (fcCSP) as test vehicles to illustrate this unique semi-empirical warpage prediction method. © 2015 IEEE.


Rudy C.W.,Circle Technology
Laser Focus World | Year: 2014

Mid-infrared lasers with wavelengths from 2 to 20 μm continue to advance as both new and higher-quality doped optical fibers, solid-state materials, and nonlinear optical devices are developed for this wavelength range. The structure of mid-IR sources based on interband transitions closely resemble double hetero-junction semiconductor lasers in more established wavelength ranges, where the active region has a lower bandgap and larger index of refraction than the surrounding material for carrier and photon confinement. The midIR lasers are both compact and electrically driven. Q-switched, gain switched, and mode-locked pulses have been generated by mid-IR fiber lasers. Several solid-state mid-IR lasers with trivalent rare-earth ions have been developed, with the most common dopants being Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+, with emission wavelengths similar to the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers.


Wickens C.D.,Circle Technology
Human Factors | Year: 2014

Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the importance of effort in human factors.Background: Effort has made its appearance in several diverse formats and applications. Eight of these are integrated in the current writing related to learning, looking, task switching, visual search termination, information access, choosing decision strategies, and behaving safely.Method: This is based upon a literature review.Results: The common elements of these different effort applications are highlighted, particularly, their manifestations in either implicit or explicit expected value decisions.Conclusions: There is a need to show how the metrics of effort and workload assessment influence decisions in human factors, particularly, those related to safety. Copyright © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.


Patent
Circle Technology | Date: 2014-11-21

Systems, methods and computer readable memory devices for delivering a presentation are provided. In one example, a method includes establishing a wireless network access point that creates a closed wireless network. An encrypted communication session is established via the closed wireless network with a plurality of client computing devices that each comprise a display. Each of the client computing devices is communicatively coupled to a virtual network server on the host computing device. A resource locator is sent to the client computing devices, with the resource locator including a network location of an audio/video file stored on the host computing device. A request is received for the resource locator from the client computing devices. In response, audio/video data is streamed from the audio/video file to the plurality of client computing devices.


Patent
Circle Technology | Date: 2015-08-21

Systems and methods for providing grow lighting are described. One embodiment of a method includes receiving a lighting cycle for a predetermined plant type and receiving a command for implementing the lighting cycle with a grow lighting assembly on a plant, where the grow lighting assembly includes a grow lighting device with a plurality of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Some embodiments also include determining an illumination pattern for implementing the lighting cycle for the grow lighting assembly and sending the illumination pattern to the grow lighting assembly for implementation.


Patent
Circle Technology | Date: 2015-08-21

Systems and methods for creating a grow cycle are described. One embodiment of a method includes receiving a plant type for providing grow lighting and receiving first data for creating a first grow cycle for a first predetermined period of plant growth, where the first grow cycle includes providing a first wavelength of photon-emitting lighting. In some embodiments, the method includes receiving second data for creating a second grow cycle for a second predetermined period of plant growth, where the second grow cycle includes providing a second wavelength of photon-emitting lighting, determining when the first predetermined period of plant growth begins, and in response to determining that the first predetermined period of plant growth has begun, implementing the first grow cycle. In some embodiments, the method includes determining when the second predetermined period of plant growth begins and, in response to determining that the second predetermined period of plant growth has begun, implementing the second grow cycle.


Patent
Circle Technology | Date: 2014-11-21

Systems, methods and computer readable memory devices for delivering a presentation are provided. In one example, a method includes communicatively coupling the host computing device to an external router, and establishing the closed wireless network using the router. An encrypted communication session is established via the closed wireless network with a plurality of client computing devices that each comprises a display. Each of the client computing devices is communicatively coupled to a virtual network server on the host computing device. Frame buffer data is retrieved from a storage subsystem of the host computing device. The frame buffer data is sent to each of the client computing devices to modify the display of each device.


Patent
Circle Technology | Date: 2013-06-19

A system, related methods and computer readable memory device for delivering a presentation are provided. In one example, a method includes establishing a wireless network access point that creates a closed wireless network. An encrypted communication session is established via the closed wireless network with a plurality of client computing devices that each comprise a display. Each of the client computing devices is communicatively coupled to a virtual network server on the host computing device. Frame buffer data is retrieved from a storage subsystem of the host computing device. The frame buffer data is sent to each of the client computing devices to modify the display of the devices.


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