Minneapolis, MN, United States
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Chen W.-Y.,National Central University | Chen H.-C.,National Central University | Yang Y.-S.,National Chiao Tung University | Huang C.-J.,National Central University | And 2 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

Intensive efforts have been focused on the development of ultrasensitive DNA biosensors capable of quantitative gene expression analysis. Various neutralized nucleic acids have been demonstrated as alternative and attractive probe for the design of a DNA chip. However, the mechanism of the improvements has not been clearly revealed. In this investigation, we used a newly developed neutral ethylated DNA (E-DNA), a DNA analog with the "RO-P-O" backbone (wherein R could be methyl, ethyl, aryl, or alkyl group) obtained from synthetic procedures, and a silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistor (FET) to evaluate the difference in DNA detection performance while using E-DNA and DNA as probes. It is demonstrated that using the E-DNA probe in the FET measurement could have a significantly enhanced effect upon the detection sensitivity. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) was used to evidence the mechanism of the improved detection sensitivity. SPRi analysis showed the amounts of probe immobilization on the sensor surface and the hybridization efficiency were both enhanced with the use of E-DNA. Consequently, neutral ethylated DNA probe hold a great promise for DNA sensing, especially in the electrical-based sensor. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Supronowicz P.,Circle Biologics | Gill E.,Circle Biologics | Trujillo A.,Circle Biologics | Thula T.,Circle Biologics | And 3 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2011

Background: Tissue engineering of new bone relies on the combination and application of osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic elements. Natural scaffolds, such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM), contain collagenous networks with growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2. Stem cells from readily available sources, including discarded adipose tissue, have the propensity to differentiate into bone. The present study examines a multi-component technique consisting of a novel side population of adipose stem cells cultured on DBM for tissue engineering applications. Methods: Adipose-derived side population stem cells were cultured on DBM for up to 14 days. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix protein production, and calcium-containing mineral deposit formation were assayed. Ectopic bone formation in a rat model was also evaluated. Results: Side population stem cells attached to and proliferated on DBM while generating markers of new bone formation. When these cell/substrate composites were implanted into an ectopic model, newly formed bone was 30% greater than that of DBM alone. Conclusions: Novel populations of adipose-derived stem cells cultured on DBM compose a system that develops new bone matrix in vitro and in vivo. This strategy provides a novel approach using naturally occurring materials for bone repair in tissue engineering applications. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.


Lewis C.S.,Circle Biologics | Katz J.,Circle Biologics | Baker M.I.,Circle Biologics | Supronowicz P.R.,Circle Biologics | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications | Year: 2011

Infected bone defects and osteomyelitis are encountered frequently in trauma cases. Currently, the standard of care for osteomyelitis cases is prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy and implantation of antibiotic carrier beads. However, this method requires a secondary surgery to remove the beads after the infection has cleared. In the present study a common bone void filler was investigated for its ability to be infused with an antibiotic. This study demonstrates that the xenograft material tested can be loaded with gentamicin and release clinically relevant levels of the drug for at least 14 days in vitro allowing for the inhibition of bacterial growth on the graft. This study also demonstrates that the levels of gentamicin released did not have an adverse effect on primary osteoblast cell proliferation or ability to generate alkaline phosphatase. This bone void filler may represent a viable alternative to current methods of local antibiotic delivery in orthopedic applications. © The Author(s), 2010. Reprints and permissions.


Lewis C.S.,Circle Biologics | Supronowicz P.R.,Circle Biologics | Zhukauskas R.M.,Circle Biologics | Gill E.,Circle Biologics | Cobb R.R.,Circle Biologics
Cell and Tissue Banking | Year: 2012

A method of care for these infected nonunions is prolonged intravenous systemic antibiotic treatment and implantation of methyl methacrylate antibiotic carrier beads to delivery high local doses of antibiotics. This method requires a second surgery to remove the beads once the infection has cleared. Recent studies have investigated the use of biodegradable materials that have been impregnated with antibiotics as tools to treat bone infections. In the present study, human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was investigated for its ability to be loaded with an antibiotic. The data presented herein demonstrates that this osteoinductive and biodegradable material can be loaded with gentamicin and release clinically relevant levels of the drug for at least 13 days in vitro. This study also demonstrates that the antibiotic loaded onto the graft has no adverse effects on the osteoinductive nature of the DBM as measured in vitro and in vivo. This bone void filler may represent a promising option for local antibiotic delivery in orthopedic applications. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kemper N.,Circle Biologics | Davison N.,Circle Biologics | Fitzpatrick D.,Circle Biologics | Marshall R.,Circle Biologics | And 3 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Banking | Year: 2011

Over the past decade chemical processing and engineering of musculoskeletal tissue (tendon and bone) has improved dramatically. The use of bone allograft and xenograft in reconstructive orthopedic and maxillofacial surgeries is increasing, yet severe complications can occur if the material is contaminated in any way. A novel tissue sterilization process, BioCleanse®, has been developed to clean and sterilize musculoskeletal tissue for implantation. The present study was designed to determine the effect of this novel cleaning process on the biomechanical properties of bovine cortical bone prior to implantation. The mechanical properties of treated bovine bone material were compared to human samples with respect to failure under compression, shear and threepoint bending. The data demonstrate that bovine bone treated with the novel sterilization procedure has favorable biomechanical properties compared to that of human bone treated in a similar fashion. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Patent
Circle Biologics | Date: 2010-06-17

A concentrator is used for concentrating a fluid, particularly a plasma component out of blood, for treatment of a patient. The concentrator apparatus includes a main housing defining a centrifuge chamber, that also holds the filter. The concentrator allows viewing of the fluid after centrifuging, with an outlet port positionable at a height corresponding to the level of the fraction of the fluid to be further concentrated. Once the fluid is centrifuged, a portion of the fluid is drawn through the outlet, and then pressured past the filter to further concentrate the fluid using the same vessel as used for centrifuging. The same plunger is preferably used to draw centrifuged fluid from the centrifuge chamber as to pressure the centrifuged fluid past the filter.


Patent
Circle Biologics | Date: 2013-09-20

A fluid management system for transferring fluid, the system including a connector component comprising a first end and an opposite second end, a first syringe with a distal end that is removably attachable to the first end of the connector component, and a second syringe with a distal end that is removably attachable to the second end of the connector component.


Patent
Circle Biologics | Date: 2011-08-26

A concentrator is used for concentrating a fluid, particularly a plasma component out of blood, for treatment of a patient. The concentrator apparatus includes a main housing defining a centrifuge chamber, that also holds the filter. The concentrator allows viewing of the fluid after centrifuging, with an outlet port positionable at a height corresponding to the level of the fraction of the fluid to be further concentrated. Once the fluid is centrifuged, a portion of the fluid is drawn through the outlet, and then pressured past the filter to further concentrate the fluid using the same vessel as used for centrifuging. The same plunger is preferably used to draw centrifuged fluid from the centrifuge chamber as to pressure the centrifuged fluid past the filter.


The present invention provides devices and methods for concentrating a fluid and for treating a patient with the concentrated fluid. The concentrator apparatus includes a main housing (12) defining a separation chamber (14), a filter housing (48) containing a filter (46) comprising a filter element, a piping (44) for moving concentrated fluid from the separation chamber to the filter, and ports (32) for pressurizing the concentrated fluid past the filter element of the filter. The present invention also provides a variety of uses of concentrated body fluids, including autologous concentrated body fluid. The concentrated fluids can be used for example in surgical applications, including graft applications such as allograft, xenograft and autograft applications.


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