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Minneapolis, MN, United States

Chen W.-Y.,National Central University | Chen H.-C.,National Central University | Yang Y.-S.,National Chiao Tung University | Huang C.-J.,National Central University | And 2 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

Intensive efforts have been focused on the development of ultrasensitive DNA biosensors capable of quantitative gene expression analysis. Various neutralized nucleic acids have been demonstrated as alternative and attractive probe for the design of a DNA chip. However, the mechanism of the improvements has not been clearly revealed. In this investigation, we used a newly developed neutral ethylated DNA (E-DNA), a DNA analog with the "RO-P-O" backbone (wherein R could be methyl, ethyl, aryl, or alkyl group) obtained from synthetic procedures, and a silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistor (FET) to evaluate the difference in DNA detection performance while using E-DNA and DNA as probes. It is demonstrated that using the E-DNA probe in the FET measurement could have a significantly enhanced effect upon the detection sensitivity. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) was used to evidence the mechanism of the improved detection sensitivity. SPRi analysis showed the amounts of probe immobilization on the sensor surface and the hybridization efficiency were both enhanced with the use of E-DNA. Consequently, neutral ethylated DNA probe hold a great promise for DNA sensing, especially in the electrical-based sensor. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Deuerling J.M.,University of Notre Dame | Deuerling J.M.,Circle Biologics | Scott Vitter J.,University of Notre Dame | Scott Vitter J.,U.S. Army | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2012

Hydroxyapatite (HA) whisker reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites have been investigated as bioactive materials for load-bearing orthopedic implants with tailored mechanical properties governed by the volume fraction, morphology, and preferred orientation of the HA whisker reinforcements. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish key structure-property relationships and predictive capabilities for the design of HA whisker reinforced PEEK composites and, more generally, discontinuous short fiber-reinforced composite materials. HA whisker reinforced PEEK composites exhibited anisotropic elastic constants due to a preferred orientation of the HA whiskers induced during compression molding. Experimental measurements for both the preferred orientation of HA whiskers and composite elastic constants were greatest in the flow direction during molding (3-axis, C 33), followed by the transverse (2-axis, C 22) and pressing (1-axis, C 11) directions. Moreover, experimental measurements for the elastic anisotropy and degree of preferred orientation in the same specimen plane were correlated. A micromechanical model accounted for the preferred orientation of HA whiskers using two-dimensional implementations of the measured orientation distribution function (ODF) and was able to more accurately predict the orthotropic elastic constants compared to common, idealized assumptions of randomly oriented or perfectly aligned reinforcements. Model predictions using the 3-2 plane ODF, and the average of the 3-1 and 3-2 plane ODFs, were in close agreement with the corresponding measured elastic constants, exhibiting less than 5 average absolute error. Model predictions for C 11 using the 3-1 plane ODF were less accurate, with greater than 10 error. This study demonstrated the ability to accurately predict differences in orthotropic elastic constants due to changes in the reinforcement orientation distribution, which will aid in the design of HA whisker reinforced PEEK composites and, more generally, discontinuous short fiber-reinforced composites. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source


Patent
Circle Biologics | Date: 2010-06-17

A concentrator is used for concentrating a fluid, particularly a plasma component out of blood, for treatment of a patient. The concentrator apparatus includes a main housing defining a centrifuge chamber, that also holds the filter. The concentrator allows viewing of the fluid after centrifuging, with an outlet port positionable at a height corresponding to the level of the fraction of the fluid to be further concentrated. Once the fluid is centrifuged, a portion of the fluid is drawn through the outlet, and then pressured past the filter to further concentrate the fluid using the same vessel as used for centrifuging. The same plunger is preferably used to draw centrifuged fluid from the centrifuge chamber as to pressure the centrifuged fluid past the filter.


The present invention provides devices and methods for concentrating a fluid and for treating a patient with the concentrated fluid. The concentrator apparatus includes a main housing (


Patent
Circle Biologics | Date: 2011-08-26

A concentrator is used for concentrating a fluid, particularly a plasma component out of blood, for treatment of a patient. The concentrator apparatus includes a main housing defining a centrifuge chamber, that also holds the filter. The concentrator allows viewing of the fluid after centrifuging, with an outlet port positionable at a height corresponding to the level of the fraction of the fluid to be further concentrated. Once the fluid is centrifuged, a portion of the fluid is drawn through the outlet, and then pressured past the filter to further concentrate the fluid using the same vessel as used for centrifuging. The same plunger is preferably used to draw centrifuged fluid from the centrifuge chamber as to pressure the centrifuged fluid past the filter.

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