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Harare, Zimbabwe

Le Bel S.,CIRAD Zimbabwe | Taylor R.,BIO HUB | Lagrange M.,AWMC Pvt Ltd | Ndoro O.,Campfire | And 2 more authors.
Pachyderm | Year: 2010

With the increase of elephant populations in southern Africa and the expansion of human settlements into wildlife areas, local communities are faced with increasingly numerous cases of human-elephant conflict (HEC), which require a combination of mitigation approaches for there management. Although chilli has been tested with success on crop-raiding elephants, its utilization on a larger scale has been limited by the difficulty of finding a low-cost, easy-to-use capsicum delivery system. Two types of dispensers were developed: a catapult using clay balls and a gas-dispenser using ping-pong balls. The two prototypes were tested on a firing range and the gas-dispenser on elephants in Hwange National Park. The mean shooting distance was 46 m. Fiftyfour percent of shots released chilli oil extract on the targeted animal. Following shooting, 46% of elephants ran away, 29% backed up walking and 25% did not change their behaviour. Significant variation in agonistic behaviour was due to the success of chilli oil extract spreading onto the elephant. Improvements in the ballistic performance of the gas-dispenser have been undertaken and trials in its application with communities are in progress. Further research is planned to separate the individual effect of projectile impacts, bang and chilli itself and to assess the longer-term deterrence properties of capsicum on elephants. Source

Caron A.,CIRAD Zimbabwe | Caron A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Caron A.,University of Pretoria | Cumming G.S.,University of Cape Town | And 4 more authors.
Honeyguide | Year: 2012

We report on an avian influenza virus (AIV) project implemented in the Manyame catchment between 2007 and 2011. This project was undertaken as collaboration between two larger programmes, GRIPAVI (Cirad) and SA-GAINS (PFIAO, Univ. of Cape Town). We found persistence of low pathogenic AIV in waterfowl between May 2007 and November 2008 and potential for AIV transmission between wild and domestic birds. The approach that we developed in this project, which integrated ecology and epidemiology (both academic and applied), has tremendous potential for future work in the domain of disease ecology at the wildlife/domestic animal interface. Source

Caron A.,CIRAD Zimbabwe | Caron A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Caron A.,University of Pretoria | Miguel E.,CIRAD Zimbabwe | And 9 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

In southern African transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), people, livestock and wildlife share space and resources in semi-arid landscapes. One consequence of the coexistence of wild and domestic herbivores is the risk of pathogen transmission. This risk threatens local livelihoods relying on animal production, public health in the case of zoonoses, national economies in the context of transboundary animal diseases, and the success of integrated conservation and development initiatives. The level of interaction between sympatric wild and domestic hosts, defining different wildlife/livestock interfaces, characterizes opportunities of pathogen transmission between host populations. Exploring the relationship between infection burden and different types of wildlife/domestic interfaces is therefore necessary to manage the sanitary risk in animal populations through control options adapted to these multi-host systems. Here, we assessed the infection burdens of sympatric domestic cattle (Bos taurus/Bos indicus) and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at an unfenced interface and compared the infection burdens of cattle populations at different wildlife/livestock interfaces in the Great Limpopo TFCA. Patterns of infection in ungulate populations varied between wild and domestic hosts and between cattle populations at different wildlife/livestock interfaces. Foot-and-mouth disease, Rift Valley fever and theileriosis infections were detected in buffalo and cattle at unfenced interfaces; bovine tuberculosis was only present in buffalo; and brucellosis and lumpy skin disease only in cattle. At unfenced interfaces, cattle populations presented significantly higher Theileria parva and brucellosis prevalence. We hypothesize that cattle populations at wildlife/livestock interfaces face an increased risk of infection compared to those isolated from wildlife, and that the type of interface could influence the diversity and quantity of pathogens shared. Additional host behavioural and molecular epidemiological studies need to be conducted to support this hypothesis. If it is confirmed, the management of wildlife/livestock interfaces will need to be considered through the prism of livestock and public health. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013. Source

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