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Lamentin, France

Clostre F.,British Petroleum | Lesueur-Jannoyer M.,CIRAD PRAM | Lesueur-Jannoyer M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Achard R.,B.Ananas | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (<40 cm), deeper tillage led to a homogenization and a dilution of the pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Tixier P.,CIRAD PRAM | Tixier P.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Peyrard N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Aubertot J.-N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 8 more authors.
Advances in Ecological Research | Year: 2013

The development of new methods and approaches for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services is an important challenge that ecologists, agronomists, and theoreticians must address together. Enhancement of ecosystem services needs to be addressed at different scales and should include the interaction between farmland biodiversity and stakeholders (farmers, managers, policy makers, etc.) to optimize service delivery. Predictions require an understanding of the interactions between numerous management options and components of biodiversity. Here, we argue that interaction networks on a broad sense (from food webs to landscapes networks in which nodes could be species, trophic groups, fields or farms) can help address this high level of complexity. We examine how tools from mathematics and artificial intelligence, developed for network modelling and reasoning, could be useful for assessing and enhancing ecosystems services. In doing this we highlight the gaps that currently exist between our questions about ecosystem service provision and our ability to answer them with current modelling approaches. We illustrate the use of these tools with three case studies related to 'pest regulation services'. These include food web approaches to assess animal pest regulation services and decisional models to address management strategies for diseases and weeds. Finally, we describe how different types of network models might operate at different scales of management. The future challenge for agroecologists will be to produce models of interactions and emergent ecosystem services, which are sufficiently quantified and validated. We suggest that network ecology is a nascent research topic that is developing a strong and unified empirical and theoretical foundation, which could serve as the central paradigm for a sustainable, intensive agriculture in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Florence C.,CIRAD PRAM | Philippe L.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Magalie L.-J.,CIRAD PRAM | Magalie L.-J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure.We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Clostre F.,CIRAD PRAM | Cattan P.,UPR Fonctionnement ecologique et gestion durable des agrosystemes bananiers et ananas | Gaude J.-M.,CIRAD PRAM | Carles C.,CIRAD PRAM | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

We address the problem of the comparative environmental fate of a pesticide, chlordecone (CLD), and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro (CLD-5b-hydro). We used a large database including data from two types of contaminated volcanic soils, andosol and nitisol, and thirteen crops grown in the French West Indies in historically polluted soils. We performed in-depth statistical analysis of the effect of different parameters (soil type, crop, organ, etc.) on the ratio of CLD-5b-hydro to CLD in both soils and plants. The environmental fate of the two compounds differed depending on the type of soil. Proportionally, more CLD-5b-hydro than CLD was measured in nitisols than in andosols. Compared to CLD, we also found a preferential transfer of CLD-5b-hydro from the soil to the plant. Finally, mobilization of the two compounds differed according to the species of crop but also within the plant, with increasing ratios from the roots to the top of the plant. The properties of the compound played a key role in the underlying processes. Because CLD-5b-hydro is more soluble in water and has a lower Kow than CLD, CLD-5b-hydro (1) was more easily absorbed from soils by plants, (2) was less adsorbed onto plant tissues and (3) was transported in greater quantities through the transpiration stream.Due to the amounts of CLD-5b-hydro we measured in some plant parts such as cucurbit fruits, an assessment of the toxicity of this CLD monodechlorinated product is recommended. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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