Kim S.J.,Sungkyunkwan University |
Moon J.H.,Kyungpook National University |
Kim H.,University of Ulsan |
Kim J.S.,Yonsei University |
And 11 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2012
This retrospective study concerns non-bacterial infections in Asian patients receiving alemtuzumab. The clinical data of 182 patients treated with alemtuzumab alone or alemtuzumab-containing chemotherapy between the years 2003 and 2009 was collected from six Asian countries. Alemtuzumab was used in the setting of frontline (n = 48) or salvage (n = 90) treatment, and as a part of the conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplant (n = 44). Reactivation of cytomegalovirus (66/182) and varicella zoster virus (25/182), and fungal infection (31/182) including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, were the most common infectious complications in this retrospective analysis. Thus, we recommend routine prophylaxis with valganciclovir and itraconazole, especially when alemtuzumab is used in the conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplant. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) was found in four patients (3%, 4/122) receiving alemtuzumab as conditioning for stem cell transplant or salvage treatment. Three cases of hepatitis B virus reactivation were found in antigen-negative patients, and 16 cases of tuberculosis were observed. Infection is the major complication of alemtuzumab therapy, and these infectious complications are potentially severe and life-threatening. Based on our retrospective analysis, we have constructed a guideline for antimicrobial prophylaxis in Asian patients receiving alemtuzumab therapy. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.
Wright S.,Kirby Institute |
Boyd M.A.,Kirby Institute |
Boyd M.A.,St Vincents Hospital |
Yunihastuti E.,Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background: In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO's public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region. Methods: We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We dichotomised each country's per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H) and lower-middle/low (T-L). Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV) or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class. Results: A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95% CI) of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52), 0.33 (0.30-0.36) and 0.21 (0.18-0.23) for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 & HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring. Conclusions: Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was associated with increased modifications to first-line ART. © 2013 Wright et al.
Hansudewechakul R.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital |
Sirisanthana V.,Chiang Mai University |
Kurniati N.,Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital |
Puthanakit T.,Red Cross |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010
Introduction: We report responses to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database. Methods: Children included were those who had received cART (ie, ≥3 antiretrovirals) at <18 years. The analysis was intention-to-treat by the first cART regimen. Median values are provided with interquartile ranges; hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of the 1655 children included, 50.4% were male, with a median age at cART of 7.0 (3.9-9.8) years and CD4 of 8% (2.0%-15%); 92.5% were started on an NNRTI; median duration of follow-up was 2.9 (1.4-4.6) years. Loss-to-follow-up and death rates were 4.2 (3.7-4.8) and 2.1 (1.7-2.5) per 100 person-years, respectively. At 36 months, median CD4 was 26% (21%-31%); 81% of those with viral load (n = 302) were <400 copies per milliliter. Children who reached CD4 ≥25% within 5 years were more likely to be females (HR: 1.4; 1.2-1.7), start before 18 months old (HR: 3.8; 2.4-6.2), lack a history of monotherapy/dual therapy (HR: 1.7; 1.4-2.5), and have a higher baseline CD4 (per 10% increase: HR: 2; 1.9-2.2). Conclusions: These data underscore the need for early diagnosis and cART initiation to preserve immune function. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sudjaritruk T.,Chiang Mai University |
Maleesatharn A.,Mahidol University |
Prasitsuebsai W.,Red Cross |
Fong S.M.,Hospital Likas |
And 11 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2013
A multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted to determine prevalence, characteristics, management, and outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Asian HIV-infected children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD). Data on PTB episodes diagnosed during the period between 12 months before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and December 31, 2009 were extracted. A total of 2678 HIV-infected children were included in TApHOD over a 13-year period; 457 developed PTB, giving a period prevalence of 17.1% (range 5.7-33.0% per country). There were a total of 484 PTB episodes; 27 children had 2 episodes each. There were 21 deaths (4.3%). One third of episodes (n=175/484) occurred after ART initiation at a median of 14.1 months (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5-28.8 months). The median (IQR) CD4+ values were 9.0% (3.0-16.0%) and 183.5 (37.8-525.0) cells/mm3 when PTB was diagnosed. Most episodes (n=424/436, 97.3%) had abnormal radiographic findings compatible with PTB, whereas half (n=267/484, 55.2%) presented with clinical characteristics of PTB. One third of those tested (n=42/122, 34.4%) had bacteriological evidence of PTB. Of the 156 episodes (32.2%) that were accompanied with extrapulmonary TB, pleuritis was the most common manifestation (81.4%). After treatment completion, most episodes (n=396/484, 81.9%) were recorded as having positive outcomes (cured, treatment completed and child well, and improvement). The prevalence of PTB among Asian HIV-infected children in our cohort was high. Children with persistent immunosuppression remain vulnerable to PTB even after ART initiation. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
PubMed | Red Cross, University of New South Wales, National Hospital of Tropical Diseases, Chulalongkorn University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of viral hepatitis | Year: 2016
Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, University of New South Wales, Udayana University and 14 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2016
The growth benefits of cotrimoxazole during early antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well characterized.Individuals enrolled in the Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database were included if they started ART at ages 1 month-14 years and had both height and weight measurements available at ART initiation (baseline). Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with change in height-for-age z-score (HAZ), follow-up HAZ -2, change in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and follow-up WAZ -2.A total of 3217 children were eligible for analysis. The adjusted mean change in HAZ among cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users did not differ significantly over the first 24 months of ART. In children who were stunted (HAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a follow-up HAZ -2. The adjusted mean change in WAZ among children with a baseline CD4 percentage (CD4%) >25% became significantly different between cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users after 6 months of ART and remained significant after 24 months (overall P < .01). Similar changes in WAZ were observed in those with a baseline CD4% between 10% and 24% (overall P < .01). Cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a significant difference in follow-up WAZ in children with a baseline CD4% <10%. In those underweight (WAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was associated with a follow-up WAZ -2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70 vs not using cotrimoxazole [95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.25], P < .01). This association was driven by children with a baseline CD4% 10%.Cotrimoxazole use is associated with benefits to WAZ but not HAZ during early ART in Asian children.
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, University of New South Wales, Childrens Hospital 2 and 12 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society | Year: 2016
Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mmData from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mmRegular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 500 cells/mm
Lumbiganon P.,Khon Kaen University |
Kariminia A.,University of New South Wales |
Aurpibul L.,Chiang Mai University |
Hansudewechakul R.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2011
Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been used for HIV-infected children in many Asian countries since 2002. This study describes survival outcomes among HIV-infected children in a multicenter regional cohort in Asia. Patients and Methods: Retrospective and prospective data collected through March 2009 from children in 5 countries enrolled in TREAT Asia's Pediatric HIV Observational Database were analysed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess factors associated with mortality in children who received ART. Results: Among 2280 children, 1752 (77%) had received ART. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years after ART, 115 (6.6%) deaths occurred, giving a crude mortality rate of 1.9 per 100 child-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6 to 2.4]. The mortality rate was highest in the first 3 months of ART (10.2 per 100 child-years; 95% CI: 7.5 to 13.7) and declined after 12 months (0.9 per 100 child-years; 95% CI: 0.7 to 1.3). Those with a low recent CD4 percentage, who started ART with lower baseline weight-for-age Z score, or with WHO clinical stage 4 had an increased risk of death. Of 528 (23%) children who never received ART, 36 (6.8%) died after presenting to care, giving a crude mortality rate of 4.1 per 100 child-years (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.7), with a lost-to-program rate of 31.5 per 100 child-years (95% CI: 28.0 to 35.5). Conclusions: The high mortality during the first 3 months of ART and in those with low CD4 percentage support the implementation of early diagnosis and ART initiation. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, University of New South Wales, National Hospital of Pediatrics and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virus eradication | Year: 2016
After a median of 115.9 months of follow-up, 90% of 206 HIV-1-infected children in a cohort in Asia who initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were alive and had comparable immunological and virological outcomes as compared to the 1,915 children who had started with highly active antiretroviral regimens. However, these children had higher rates of treatment-related adverse events, opportunistic infections, and cumulative mortality, and were more likely to require protease inhibitor-containing regimens or other more novel ART-based regimens.
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, University of New South Wales, Childrens Hospital 2 and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine | Year: 2016
About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-nave patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19years who had 6months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from-2.3 to-1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.0-2.2; p= .05). Baseline CD4+ count 200cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI= 1.2-8.9; p= .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI= 1.0-4.6; p= .05) were both associated with clinical failure.Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.