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Vishwakarma R.K.,Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Shivhare U.S.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Nanda S.K.,CIPHET
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2012

Hertz's theory of contact stresses was applied to predict the splitting of guar seeds during uni-axial compressive loading between 2 rigid parallel plates. The apparent modulus of elasticity of guar seeds varied between 296.18 and 116.19 MPa when force was applied normal to hilum joint (horizontal position), whereas it varied between 171.86 and 54.18 MPa when force was applied in the direction of hilum joint (vertical position) with in moisture content range of 5.16% to 15.28% (d.b.). At higher moisture contents, the seeds yielded after considerable deformation, thus showing ductile nature. Distribution of stresses below the point of contact were plotted to predict the location of critical point, which was found at 0.44 to 0.64 mm and 0.37 to 0.53 mm below the contact point in vertical and horizontal loading, respectively, depending upon moisture content. The separation of cotyledons from each other initiated before yielding of cotyledons and thus splitting of seed took place. The relationships between apparent modulus of elasticity, principal stresses with moisture content were described using second-order polynomial equations and validated experimentally. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Patel K.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Jha S.N.,CIPHET | Khan M.A.,AMU
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Quality inspection of food and agricultural produce are difficult and labor intensive. Simultaneously, with increased expectations for food products of high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of these characteristics in food products continues to grow. However, these operations generally in India are manual which is costly as well as unreliable because human decision in identifying quality factors such as appearance, flavor, nutrient, texture, etc., is inconsistent, subjective and slow. Machine vision provides one alternative for an automated, non-destructive and cost-effective technique to accomplish these requirements. This inspection approach based on image analysis and processing has found a variety of different applications in the food industry. Considerable research has highlighted its potential for the inspection and grading of fruits and vegetables, grain quality and characteristic examination and quality evaluation of other food products like bakery products, pizza, cheese, and noodles etc. The objective of this paper is to provide in depth introduction of machine vision system, its components and recent work reported on food and agricultural produce. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2011.

Barnwal P.,NDRI | Singh K.K.,ADG PE | Mohite A.,CIPHET | Sharma A.,CIPHET
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2015

Grinding characteristics of fenugreek (cv. AM-1) were carried out at cryogenic and ambient conditions. It was observed that it affected average particle size, volume surface mean diameter, mass mean diameter, volume mean diameter, specific surface of mixture, number of particles per gram, energy constants - Rittinger and Kick's - and specific energy consumption. Values of average particle size, volume surface mean diameter, mass mean diameter, volume mean diameter, specific surface of mixture, number of particles per gram, Rittinger's constant, Kick's constant and specific energy consumption varied from 0.31 to 0.80, 0.31 to 0.57, 0.27 to 0.77, 0.25 to 0.41mm; 16,413 to 34,254mm2/g; 5,863 to 111,620 particles per gram, 4.97 to 35.87 kWh/t, 4.76 to 53.59 kWh/t, and 8.37 to 50.17kWh/t, respectively, in the moisture content range of 5-15% wet basis at ambient and cryogenic grinding. Comparative study had shown that ambient grinding needs more power and specific energy than cryogenic grinding. Practical Applications: The grinding characteristics of fenugreek powder will be useful to control the processing parameters and it will lead to improved quality and output of the fenugreek powder. The present study on grinding characteristics of fenugreek powder provides reliable information for design of equipments for handling, processing, packaging and transportation of ground powder, which will in turn be economically helpful for powder processing industries. The better color parameters of the fenugreek powder also cause enhancement of economy that may be seen with the help of present work. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Barnwal P.,National Dairy Research Institute | Singh K.K.,ICAR CIAE Bhopal and Ex Head | Sharma A.,CIPHET | Choudhary A.K.,CIPHET | Saxena S.N.,ICAR NRCSS
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

In present study, influence of grinding (hammer and pin mills) and moisture content (range: 6.4–13.6 % dry basis) on the quality traits of coriander powder were investigated. These include grinding parameters, colour parameters, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, glass transition temperature, essential oil, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging (%) of coriander powder. For coriander seed, the geometric properties such as major, medium, minor dimensions, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and volume of coriander seeds increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4–13.6 % db). For coriander powder, the grinding parameters such as average particle size, volume surface mean diameter and volume mean diameter increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4–13.6 % db). With the grinding method, the colour attributes of coriander powder such as L-value, a-value, b-value, hue angle and browning index varied significantly. It was observed that the specific heat followed second order polynomial relationship with temperature and moisture whereas thermal conductivity varied linearly with temperature and moisture content. The variation of glass transition temperature with moisture can be best represented in quadratic manner. Total flavonoid content (mg QE/g crude seed extract) and DPPH scavenging % activity of coriander powder is significantly affected by grinding methods. A lower value of specific heat was observed for hammer ground coriander powder as compared to pin mill ground coriander powder. The thermal conductivity of hammer mill ground coriander powder was higher as compared to pin mill ground coriander. It was observed that hammer mill yields more fine coriander powder in comparison to pin mill. The browning index was more in hammer mill ground coriander powder. © 2015 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)

Bhise S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Kaur A.,Punjab Agricultural University | Manikantan M.,CIPHET
Acta Alimentaria | Year: 2014

Physical properties of maize were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The obtained data provide help in the designing of post-harvest handling machinery. In the moisture range of 10-18% wet basis (w.b.), the length of the rewetted grain increased from 10.01 to 10.65 mm, width increased from 8.57 to 8.70 mm, thickness ranged from 4.63 to 4.97 mm, geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased from 7.34 to 7.67 mm, sphericity increased from 0.72 to 0.73, thousand kernel weight (TKW) increased from 258.1 to 287.9 g, bulk density decreased from 591.6 to 554.2 kg m-3, true density increased from 1194.9 to 1267.2 kg m-3, porosity increased from 52.61 to 56.27%, hardness decreased from 293.75 to 228.04 N, initial cracking force decreased from 190.11 to 137.35 N and area ranges from 55.09 to 36.58 Nmm. In the same moisture range the angle of repose varied from 23.36 to 28.55 for grain. Lightness (L) of grain ranges from 62.82 to 59.26, a value (red-green axis) ranges from 13.97 to 8.96, b value (yellow-blue axis) ranges from 31.05 to 26.19 and hue angle (z%) decreased from 14.59 to 14.06 with increase in moisture content of grain from 10 to 18% w.b.

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