The Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute is a Mexican non-governmental scientific research affiliated to the National Polytechnic Institute and founded by president Adolfo López Mateos on 17 April 1961, initially planned as a posgraduate department of the National Polytechnic Institute, which was later modified by President José López Portillo, on the 17 September 1982.The modification by President Portillo stipulates that it is a decentralized organ of public interest, with legal personality and own patrimony. Cinvestav receives an annual subsidy by the Federal Government to fund its operations. Wikipedia.
Heil M.,CINVESTAV |
Karban R.,University of California at Davis
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010
In spite of initial doubts about the reality of 'talking trees', plant resistance expression mediated by volatile compounds that come from neighboring plants is now well described. Airborne signals usually improve the resistance of the receiver, but without obvious benefits for the emitter, thus making the evolutionary explanation of this phenomenon problematic. Here, we discuss four possible non-exclusive explanations involving the role of volatiles: in direct defense, as within-plant signals, as traits that synergistically interact with other defenses, and as cues among kin. Unfortunately, there is a lack of knowledge on the fitness consequences of plant communication for both emitter and receiver. This information is crucial to understanding the ecology and evolution of plant communication via airborne cues. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014
Plants respond to mechanical wounding, herbivore feeding or infection by pathogens with the release of volatiles. Small C6 molecules termed green-leaf volatiles form a general element in most of these blends; however, the overall composition is usually sufficiently specific that other organisms are able to determine the nature of the attacker. Receivers of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (HI-VOCs) comprise distant parts of the same plant ('within-plant signalling'), neighbouring plants ('plant-plant signalling'), herbivores, and multiple carnivores that respond to the 'plant's cry for help', such as parasitoids and hyperparasitoids, entomopathogenic nematodes, and predatory mites, beetles, bugs and birds. In spite of intensive research efforts, many central questions still remain. How do plants perceive volatiles? What is the relative impact of each of the interactions with different receivers of HI-VOCs on the fitness of the emitting plant and that of the interacting organisms? How long can these compounds remain stable in the atmosphere? Why are VOC-mediated effects on herbivores and beneficial organisms not used as a common tool in sustainable agriculture? Here, I briefly summarize the ecological effects of HI-VOC perception and discuss the most pertinent questions raised by participants at the 32nd New Phytologist Symposium in Buenos Aires. © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2015
Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) as an induced defense against herbivores. EFN contains not only carbohydrates and amino acids but also pathogenesis-related proteins and other protective enzymes, making EFN an exclusive reward. EFN secretion is commonly induced after wounding, likely owing to a jasmonic acid-induced cell wall invertase, and is limited by phloem sucrose availability: Both factors control EFN secretion according to the optimal defense hypothesis. Non-ant EFN consumers include parasitoids, wasps, spiders, mites, bugs, and predatory beetles. Little is known about the relevance of EFN to the nutrition of its consumers and, hence, to the structuring of arthropod communities. The mutualism can be established quickly among noncoevolved (e.g., invasive) species, indicating its easy assembly is due to ecological fitting. Therefore, increasing efforts are directed toward using EFN in biocontrol. However, documentation of the importance of EFN for the communities of plants and arthropods in natural, invasive, and agricultural ecosystems is still limited. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2015
Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. © 2015 Meneses.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013
Multiple plant species are engaged in defensive mutualisms with members of the third trophic level. However, mutualisms are prone to exploitation by low-quality symbionts that do not provide the adequate service to their host. Can mutualisms proceed only when hosts identify their symbionts in advance or continuously monitor their activity, or are there other mechanisms to avoid the invasion of mutualisms by exploiters? High-reward species amongst Mesoamerican Acacia myrmecophytes are dominantly colonized by defending mutualistic ants, whereas about 50% of the low-reward hosts are inhabited by non-defending exploiters. I followed the development of recently founded ant colonies on a high-reward and a low-reward Acacia host species over 7 months, to investigate whether reward production correlates with a preferred maintenance of defending ants on the respective hosts. Ant diversity decreased sooner on high-reward than on low-reward hosts, and mutualistic ants were more likely to finally dominate the high-reward hosts. I observed an increased frequency of mutualists replacing parasites at high initial rates of reward production. Apparently, higher nectar provisioning by the host plants shifted the competitive balance between mutualistic and parasitic ants. Independently of the causal reason for the different secretion rates, producing more nectar thereby favours the maintenance of defending mutualists on high-reward hosts. Synthesis. The aggressiveness that enables ants to outcompete other ants also underlies their defensive effect against herbivores. I conclude that hosts can preferably associate with high-quality mutualists without measuring their effectiveness. Mutualisms remain stable when partner screening is based on traits that are relevant for the mutualistic interaction, with no need for the host to have information on the quality or identity of the symbiont. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Scientometrics | Year: 2014
The number of LA-C indexed journals in WoS has increased from 69 to 248 titles in just a period of four years (2006-2009). This unprecedented growth is related to a change in the editorial policy of WoS rather than to a change in the LA-C scientific community. We find that in the LA-C region, Brazil had the largest increase in its WoS production that also corresponded to a large increase in its production in its indexed local journals. As a consequence, Portuguese has been promoted to the second scientific language, only after English, in the LA-C production in WoS. However, while the Brazilian production in its local journals represents about one quarter of its whole WoS production, it shows a rather little effect on the respective number of citations. The rest of the LA-C countries represented in WoS still show very low levels in production and impact. Scopus has also enlarged considerably the database's coverage of LA-C journals but with a steady growth in the period considered in this study. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2013
Energetic collisions of subatomic particles with fixed or moving targets have been very valuable to penetrate into the mysteries of nature. But the mysteries are quite intriguing when projectiles and targets are macroscopically immense. We know that countless debris wandering in space impacted (and still do) large asteroids, moons and planets; and that millions of craters on their surfaces are traces of such collisions. By classifying and studying the morphology of such craters, geologists and astrophysicists obtain important clues to understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System. This review surveys knowledge about crater phenomena in the planetary science context, avoiding detailed descriptions already found in excellent papers on the subject. Then, it examines the most important results reported in the literature related to impact and penetration phenomena in granular targets obtained by doing simple experiments. The main goal is to discern whether both schools, one that takes into account the right ingredients (planetary bodies and very high energies) but cannot physically reproduce the collisions, and the other that easily carries out the collisions but uses laboratory ingredients (small projectiles and low energies), can arrive at a synergistic intersection point. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011
Nectar contains water, sugars and amino acids to attract pollinators and defenders and is protected from nectar robbers and microorganisms by secondary compounds and antimicrobial proteins. Floral and extrafloral nectar secretion can be induced by jasmonic acid, it is often adjusted to consumer identity and consumption rate and depends on invertase activity. Invertases are likely to play at least three roles: the uploading of sucrose from the phloem, carbohydrate mobilization during active secretion and the postsecretory adjustment of the sucrose:hexose ratio of nectar. However, it remains to be studied how plants produce and secrete non-carbohydrate components. More research is needed to understand how plants produce nectar, the most important mediator of their interactions with mutualistic animals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Barrett L.G.,CSIRO |
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2012
Host ranges are commonly quantified to classify herbivores and plant pathogens as either generalists or specialists. Here, we summarize patterns and mechanisms in the interactions of plants with these enemies along different axes of specificity. We highlight the many dimensions within which plant enemies can specify and consider the underlying ecological, evolutionary and molecular mechanisms. Host resistance traits and enemy effectors emerge as central players determining host utilization and thus host range. Finally, we review approaches to studying the causes and consequences of variation in the specificity of plant. -enemy interactions. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that determine host range is required to understand host shifts, and evolutionary transitions among specialist and generalist strategies, and to predict potential host ranges of pathogens and herbivores. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Cinvestav | Date: 2014-09-22
Disclosed are methods of obtaining clonal seeds, methods of plant cloning, methods of screening for maternal plants that produce clonal seeds asexually and methods of increasing yield of clonal seeds. Also disclosed are constructs comprising a nucleic acid that can silence the activity of a RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway gene. Further disclosed are maternal plants comprising a construct wherein the construct comprises an exogenous nucleic acid sequence, wherein the construct renders the maternal plant defective for RNA-dependent DNA methylation.