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Kannan J.A.,University of Cincinnati | Epstein T.G.,University of Cincinnati | Epstein T.G.,Cincinnati Veterans Administration Medical Center
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2013

Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is beneficial for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and in preventing stinging insect anaphylaxis, but is not without risks. Four retrospective surveillance surveys and one on-going national prospective study have attempted to characterize the incidence and risk factors for fatal and non-fatal SCIT reactions. These studies have contributed significantly to currently recommended SCIT safety guidelines. Recent surveillance studies indicate stable SR rates, and a possible decline in the incidence of fatal reactions since the implementation of evidence-based safety guidelines. This review will provide a detailed summary of the evidence from surveillance studies for risk factors associated with SCIT reactions, including: uncontrolled asthma, prior systemic reactions, dosing during peak pollen seasons, epinephrine being delayed or not given, dosing or administration errors, inadequate waiting times, reactions occurring more than 30 min after injections, injections given in medically unsupervised settings, concomitant beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) use, and accelerated build-up regimens. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Source


Epstein T.G.,University of Cincinnati | Epstein T.G.,Cincinnati Veterans Administration Medical Center | Liss G.M.,University of Toronto | Murphy-Berendts K.,Bernstein Clinical Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2013

Objective: To define the incidence of and clinical practices associated with subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT)-related systemic reactions (SRs). Methods: From 2008-2011, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology members completed an annual survey of SCIT-related SRs of varying severity (with grade 1 indicating mild; grade 2, moderate; and grade 3, severe anaphylaxis). From 2010-2011 (year 3) data were collected regarding SCIT-related procedures, including screening of patients with asthma, dose adjustment during peak pollen seasons, build-up regimens (conventional, cluster, or rush), and premedication. Results: No fatal reactions were directly or indirectly reported from 2008-2011. The SR rates were similar for all 3 years (0.1% of injection visits; 83% of practices), as were severity grades. On average, for all 3 years, there were 7.1 grade 1, 2.6 grade 2, and 0.4 grade 3 SRs per 10,000 injection visits. Screening for worsening asthma symptoms was highly prevalent (86% always screened). Practices that always reduced doses during peak pollen season were significantly less likely to report grade 2 or 3 SRs (44% vs 65%; P =.04). Cluster and rush build-up were associated with significantly more SRs (P <.001). Practices that premedicated were significantly more likely to report grade 2 and 3 SRs (P <.01). Conclusion: Fatal reactions to SCIT appear to be declining, possibly related to almost universal screening of asthmatic patients. Adjusting doses during the pollen season may be associated with decreased risk for severe SRs. Cluster and rush immunotherapy were associated with increased risk for SRs. Premedication by practices reporting SRs likely reflects past experience with SRs. © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Salehi M.,University of Cincinnati | Aulinger B.,University of Cincinnati | D'Alessio D.A.,University of Cincinnati | D'Alessio D.A.,Cincinnati Veterans Administration Medical Center
Diabetes | Year: 2012

The incretin effect, reflecting the enhancement of postprandial insulin secretion by factors including the intestinal hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, increases in proportion to meal size. However, it is unknown whether the incretin effect is dependent on ambient glucose. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of plasma glycemia on the incretin effect. Thirteen healthy subjects consumed 50 g oral glucose solution mixed with D-xylose during fixed hyperglycemia at 8 and 10.5 mmol/L, on 3 separate days, twice at lower glycemia (LOW) and once at higher values (HIGH). The relative increase in insulin release after glucose ingestion at fixed hyperglycemia, a surrogate for the incretin effect, was similar among all three studies. The GLP-1 response to oral glucose was significantly lower at higher plasma glycemia, as was the appearance of D-xylose after the meal. Between the two LOW studies, the reproducibility of insulin release in response to intravenous glucose alone and intravenous plus ingested glucose was similar. These findings indicate that the incretin contribution to postprandial insulin release is independent of glycemia in healthy individuals, despite differences in GLP-1 secretion. The incretin effect is a reproducible trait among humans with normal glucose tolerance. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Davis D.T.,Cincinnati Veterans Administration Medical Center
Journal of trauma nursing : the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses | Year: 2012

Trauma continues to be the leading cause of death among those younger than 40 years. A major cause of death within the first 24 hours is hemorrhage. Many of these patients present with severe coagulopathy and require massive transfusion. Earlier control of coagulopathy has been shown to improve survival. To address coagulopathy sooner, changes in the way we identify and resuscitate the exsanguinating trauma patient have evolved. These changes include early identification of at-risk patients and early, aggressive transfusion of plasma and platelets. This article reviews the key massive transfusion triggers and resuscitation strategy of damage control resuscitation. Source


Lee T.,University of Cincinnati | Lee T.,Cincinnati Veterans Administration Medical Center | Wadehra D.,University of Cincinnati
Seminars in Dialysis | Year: 2012

The major cause of hemodialysis vascular access failure is venous stenosis resulting from neointimal hyperplasia. Genetic factors have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in the general population. Genetic factors may also play an important role in vascular access stenosis and development of neointimal hyperplasia by affecting pathways that lead to inflammation, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and vascular smooth muscle proliferation. This review will discuss the role of genetics in understanding neointimal hyperplasia development in hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction and other disease processes with similar neointimal hyperplasia development such as coronary artery disease and PVD. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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