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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Spiller H.A.,Central Ohio Poison Center | Spiller H.A.,Ohio State University | Mowry J.B.,Indiana University | Aleguas A.,Florida Poison Information Center Tampa | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2016

Study objective Rivaroxaban and apixaban are part of a new group of oral anticoagulants targeting factor Xa and approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 and 2012. These oral anticoagulants are administered at fixed daily doses, without the need for laboratory-guided adjustments. There are limited data available on supratherapeutic doses or overdose of the oral Xa inhibitors. This study characterizes the clinical effect in patients exposed to rivaroxaban and apixaban. Methods A retrospective study collected data from 8 regional poison centers covering 9 states. Cases were initially identified by a search of the poison centers' databases for case mentions involving a human exposure to Xarelto, rivaroxaban, Eliquis, or apixaban. Inclusion criteria included single-substance exposure. Exclusion criteria were animal exposure, polysubstance exposure, or information call. Data for the study were collected by individual chart review, including case narratives, and compiled into a single data set. Results There were 223 patients: 124 (56%) were female patients, mean age was 60 years, and 20 were children younger than 12 years (9%). One hundred ninety-eight patients ingested rivaroxaban (89%) and 25 ingested apixaban (11%). Dose was reported in 182 rivaroxaban patients, with a mean dose of 64.5 mg (range 15 to 1,200 mg), and in 21 apixaban patients, with a mean dose of 9.6 mg (range 2.5 to 20 mg). For rivaroxaban, prothrombin time was measured in 49 patients (25%) and elevated in 7; partial thromboplastin time, measured in 49 (25%) and elevated in 5; and international normalized ratio, measured in 61 (31%) and elevated in 13. For apixaban, prothrombin time was measured in 6 patients (24%) and elevated in none; partial thromboplastin time, measure in 6 (24%) and elevated in none; and international normalized ratio, measured in 5 patients (20%) and elevated in none. Bleeding was reported in 15 patients (7%): 11 rivaroxaban and 4 apixaban. The site of bleeding was gastrointestinal (8), oral (2), nose (1), bruising (1), urine (1), and subdural (1). The subdural bleeding occurred after fall and head injury. All cases with bleeding involved long-term ingestions. Coagulation test results were normal in most patients with bleeding: prothrombin time 5 of 6 (83%), partial thromboplastin time 5 of 6 (83%), and international normalized ratio 5 of 9 (55%). Blood products were used in 7 rivaroxaban patients (1 suicide) and 3 apixaban patients. No bleeding or altered coagulation test results occurred in children, which all involved a one-time ingestion. All 12 suicide attempts involved rivaroxaban: altered coagulation test results occurred for 5 patients (42%), no bleeding occurred in any suicide attempt patient, 1 patient was treated with fresh frozen plasma (international normalized ratio 12.47), and dose by patient history did not predict risk of altered coagulation or bleeding. Two rivaroxaban patients experienced elevation of hepatic transaminase levels greater than 1,000 U/L. Conclusion Bleeding after Xa inhibitor ingestion as a single agent is uncommon. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, or international normalized ratio may be elevated in a minority of cases but appears unreliable to measure risk of bleeding. Massive acute ingestion in suicide attempt may result in significant anticoagulation. Single exploratory ingestion by children was not associated with toxicity. © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Source

Wang G.S.,Aurora University | Wang G.S.,Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center | Levitan R.,University of Arizona | Wiegand T.J.,University of Rochester | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2015

Although there have been many developments related to specific strategies for treating patients after poisoning exposures, the mainstay of therapy remains symptomatic and supportive care. One of the most aggressive supportive modalities is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our goal was to describe the use of ECMO for toxicological exposures reported to the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). We performed a retrospective review of the ACMT ToxIC Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 0 to 89 years, evaluated between January 2010 through December 2013, and received ECMO for toxicological exposure. There were 26,271 exposures (60 % female) reported to the ToxIC Registry, 10 (0.0004 %) received ECMO: 4 pediatric (< 12 years), 2 adolescent (12–18 years), and 4 adults (>18 years). Time of initiation of ECMO ranged from 4 h to 4 days, with duration from 15 h to 12 days. Exposures included carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation (2), bitter almonds, methanol, and several medications including antihistamines (2), antipsychotic/antidepressant (2), cardiovascular drugs (2), analgesics (2), sedative/hypnotics (2), and antidiabetics (2). Four ECMO patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during their hospital course, and the overall survival rate was 80 %. ECMO was rarely used for poisoning exposures in the ACMT ToxIC Registry. ECMO was utilized for a variety of ages and for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical exposures. In most cases, ECMO was administered prior to cardiovascular failure, and survival rate was high. If available, ECMO may be a valid treatment modality. © 2015 American College of Medical Toxicology Source

Heard K.,Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center | Heard K.,Aurora University | Bui A.,Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center | Mlynarchek S.L.,Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Liver injury has been reported in children treated with repeated doses of acetaminophen. The objective of this study was to identify and validate reports of liver injury or death in children younger than 6 years who were administered repeated therapeutic doses of acetaminophen. We reviewed US Poison Center data, peer-reviewed literature, US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reports, and US Manufacturer Safety Reports describing adverse effects after acetaminophen administration. Reports that described hepatic abnormalities (description of liver injury or abnormal laboratory testing) or death after acetaminophen administration to children younger than 6 years were included. The identified reports were double abstracted and then reviewed by an expert panel to determine if the hepatic injury was related to acetaminophen and whether the dose of acetaminophen was therapeutic (≤75 mg/kg) or supratherapeutic. Our search yielded 2531 reports of adverse events associated with acetaminophen use. From these cases, we identified 76 cases of hepatic injury and 26 deaths associated with repeated acetaminophen administration. There were 6 cases of hepatic abnormalities and no deaths associated with what our panel determined to be therapeutic doses. A large proportion of cases could not be fully evaluated due to incomplete case reporting. Although we identified numerous examples of liver injury and death after repeated doses of acetaminophen, all the deaths and all but 6 cases of hepatic abnormalities involved doses more than 75 mg/kg per day. This study suggests that the doses of less than 75 mg/kg per day of acetaminophen are safe for children younger than 6 years. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Spiller H.A.,Kentucky Regional Poison Center | Scaglione J.M.,Cincinnati Drug and Poison Information Center | Aleguas A.,Northern Ohio Poison Center | Foster H.,Arkansas Poison and Drug Information Center | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effect of scheduling a drug as a controlled substance with comparable data from both a pre-scheduling and post-scheduling time period. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal changes on poisoning cases involving tramadol in 4 states: 2 states where it has been scheduled and 2 where it is not scheduled. METHODS: Databases were searched for all cases involving tramadol reported from 2003 through 2009 at 6 regional poison centers that served Arkansas, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia. To allow for comparison based on population, state population estimates were obtained from the US Census Bureau. RESULTS: Over the 7-year study period, the number of tramadol cases increased from 401 per year to 1009 cases per year. The mean annual increase in tramadol cases for all 4 states ranged from 8.8% to 14.1%. Post-scheduling in Arkansas and Kentucky, there was a mean decrease in cases of 4% and 31%, respectively. During this same period, the comparison states of West Virginia and Ohio showed a continued increase of 14% and 23%, respectively. The mean annual increase in tramadol cases per 100,000 population for all 4 states ranged from 16% to 31%. Post-scheduling of tramadol, there was an annual decrease in tramadol human exposures of 5% to 31% in Arkansas and Kentucky, respectively. During this same period, West Virginia and Ohio showed a continued annual increase of 14%. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the number of cases of tramadol exposure following its addition to the schedule of controlled substances in Kentucky and Arkansas suggests that adding a drug to the schedule of controlled substances may result in a decrease in poisoning exposures related to that drug. Source

Bond G.R.,University of Cincinnati | Bond G.R.,Cincinnati Drug and Poison Information Center | Ho M.,University of Cincinnati | Woodward R.W.,University of Cincinnati
Drug Safety | Year: 2012

Background: Unintended hepatic injury associated with the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-containing products has been growing. Objective: The aim of the study was to seek a better understanding of the causes of this observation in order to evaluate the potential impact of proposed preventive measures. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of a large database containing prospectively collected patient exposure data, clinical symptomatology and outcome. Setting: The National Poison Data System database for 2000-7 involving exposures to paracetamol and an opioid was obtained and analysed. This dataset was limited to non-suicidal cases in patients 13 years of age and older. For comparison, the parallel, mutually exclusive dataset involving exposures to one or more non-opioid containing paracetamol products was analysed. Outcome Measure: Trends in the numbers of patients exposed, treated, and mildly and severely injured were obtained and compared with each other and with trends calculated from publicly available data on sales and population. The association of injury with the number of paracetamol-containing products and the reason for taking them were also assessed. Results: Comparators: During the study period, the US population of those 15 years of age and over rose 8.5%; all pharmaceutical-related calls to all US poison centres rose 25%. For the 8-year period from 2001 to 2008, sales of over-the-counter paracetamol products rose 5% (single-ingredient products fell 3%; paracetamol-containing combination cough and cold products rose 11%) and prescription paracetamol combination products rose 67%. Opioids with paracetamol: A total of 119 731 cases were identified, increasing 70% over the period. The exposure merited acetylcysteine treatment in 8995 cases (252%increase). In total, 2729 patients (2.3%) experienced some hepatic injury (500% increase). Minor injuries rose faster than severe injuries (833% vs 280%) and most injuries (73.0%) were from overuse of a single combination product only, but the injury rate increased with use of more than one paracetamol-containing product. Abuse and misuse accounted for 34% of cases but 58% of the severe injuries. Paracetamol without opioid: A total of 126 830 cases were identified, increasing 44%, and 15 706 cases merited acetylcysteine (70% increase). A total of 4674 patients (3.7%) experienced some hepatic injury (134% increase). Use of more than one non-opioid paracetamol product occurred in 7.3% of patients and was associated with a lower injury rate. Conclusions: Hepatic injury associated with paracetamol use is increasing significantly faster than population, paracetamol product sales and poison centre use. This suggests a growing portion of consumers is self-dosing paracetamol beyond the toxic threshold. This is true for paracetamol with and without opioids, but the increase in hepatic injury is greater when paracetamol is taken with an opioid. This disproportionate rise is greatest with misuse and abuse of paracetamol products in combination with opioids. Increasing self-dosage of the opioid combination products for the opioid effect is likely to result in more cases of toxic exposure to paracetamol. In contrast, cases of exposure to paracetamol-containing cough and cold products are underrepresented among those injured. In the absence of opioid-containing products, consumption of more than one paracetamol-containing product did not contribute to injury. Efforts to modulate unintentional paracetamolrelated hepatic injury should consider these associations. © 2012 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source

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