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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Mitsnefes M.M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

More than a decade ago, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was recognized as a major cause of death in children with advanced CKD. This observation has sparked the publication ofmultiple studies assessing cardiovascular risk, mechanisms of disease, and early markers of CVD in this population. Similar to adults, children with CKD have an extremely high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related CVD risk factors. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness, and coronary artery calcification, are frequently present in these children, especially those on maintenance dialysis. As a population without preexisting symptomatic cardiac disease, children with CKD potentially receive significant benefit from aggressive attempts to prevent and treat CVD. Early CKD, before needing dialysis, is the optimal time to both identify modifiable risk factors and intervene in an effort to avert future CVD. Slowing the progression of CKD, avoiding long-term dialysis and, if possible, conducting preemptive transplantation may represent the best strategies to decrease the risk of premature cardiac disease and death in children with CKD. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Auger-Messier M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center
Circulation research

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated in the heart by disease-inducing and stress-inducing stimuli, where they participate in hypertrophy, remodeling, contractility, and heart failure. A family of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) directly inactivates each of the MAPK terminal effectors, potentially serving a cardioprotective role. To determine the role of DUSP1 and DUSP4 in regulating p38 MAPK function in the heart and the effect on disease. Here, we generated mice and mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking both Dusp1 and Dusp4 genes. Although single nulls showed no molecular effects, combined disruption of Dusp1/4 promoted unrestrained p38 MAPK activity in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the heart, with no change in the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases or extracellular signal-regulated kinases at baseline or with stress stimulation. Single disruption of either Dusp1 or Dusp4 did not result in cardiac pathology, although Dusp1/4 double-null mice exhibited cardiomyopathy and increased mortality with aging. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB731445 ameliorated cardiomyopathy in Dusp1/4 double-null mice, indicating that DUSP1/4 function primarily through p38 MAPK in affecting disease. At the cellular level, unrestrained p38 MAPK activity diminished cardiac contractility and Ca2+ handling, which was acutely reversed with a p38 inhibitory compound. Poor function in Dusp1/4 double-null mice also was partially rescued by phospholamban deletion. Our data demonstrate that Dusp1 and Dusp4 are cardioprotective genes that play a critical role in the heart by dampening p38 MAPK signaling that would otherwise reduce contractility and induce cardiomyopathy. Source

Acciani T.H.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center
Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between diesel exhaust particle (DEP) exposure, allergic sensitization, and childhood wheezing, although the mechanisms remain unclear. While DEP is known to augment allergic responses in adult animal models, its effects on sensitization and asthma severity in young animals is unknown. To examine the impact of different doses of DEP and allergen co-exposure on allergic sensitization and asthma characteristics in young mice, and whether Th17 as well as Th2 responses are induced. Lungs of 3-week-old wild-type Balb/c mice were exposed by pharyngeal aspiration nine times over 3 weeks to DEP at 1.2 or 6.0 mg/kg body weight, house dust mite (HDM) at 0.8, 1.2 or 6.0 mg/kg of DEP in combination with HDM, or the same volume (50 μL) of 0.9% sterile saline. In young mice, exposure to 1.2 mg/kg of DEP caused no detectable lung inflammation, but 6.0 mg/kg of DEP induced neutrophilic influx. Compared to HDM or DEP alone, mice exposed to either dose of DEP together with HDM demonstrated increased allergen-specific IgE, lung inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, goblet cell metaplasia, Th2/Th17 cytokines, dendritic cells, activated T cells, effector T cells, and IL-17(pos) and IL-13(pos) /IL-17A(pos) T effector cells. In young mice, co-exposure to DEP and HDM together exacerbated allergic sensitization and induced key characteristics of more severe asthma, including IL-17A, IL-17(pos) and IL-13(pos) /IL-17A(pos) T effector cells. While exposure to 1.2 mg/kg DEP alone caused no detectable changes, it did exacerbate allergic sensitization and asthma characteristics to a similar degree as a five-fold higher dose of DEP. This study demonstrates that exposure to DEP, even at a dose that alone causes no inflammation, exacerbates allergic asthma in young animals and suggests the importance of preventive measures to reduce the exposure of children to traffic related air pollution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Rothenberg M.E.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-β, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy. © 2015 AGA Institute. Source

Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Date: 2014-06-18

Embodiments provided herein relate to methods and compositions for treating cancer. Some embodiments include treating lung cancers and renal cancers.

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