Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Cincinnati

Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Cincinnati

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Griffin J.B.,Rti International | Mcclure E.M.,Rti International | Kamath-Rayne B.D.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Cincinnati | Hepler B.M.,Rti International | And 3 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2017

Aim: To determine which interventions would have the greatest impact on reducing neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2012. Methods: We used MANDATE, a mathematical model, to evaluate scenarios for the impact of available interventions on neonatal deaths from primary causes, including: (i) for birth asphyxia - obstetric care preventing intrapartum asphyxia, newborn resuscitation and treatment of asphyxiated infants; (ii) for preterm birth - corticosteroids, oxygen, continuous positive air pressure and surfactant; and, (iii) for serious newborn infection - clean delivery, chlorhexidine cord care and antibiotics. Results: Reductions in infection-related mortality have occurred. Between 80 and 90% of deaths currently occurring from infections and asphyxia can be averted from available interventions, as can 58% of mortality from preterm birth. More than 200 000 neonatal deaths can each be averted from asphyxia, preterm birth and infections. Using available interventions, more than 80% of the neonatal deaths occurring today could be prevented in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion: Reducing neonatal deaths from asphyxia require improvements in infrastructure and obstetric care to manage maternal conditions such as obstructed labour and preeclampsia. Reducing deaths from preterm birth would also necessitate improved infrastructure and training for preterm infant care. Reducing infection-related mortality requires less infrastructure and lower-level providers. © 2017 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.

Ehrlich P.F.,University of Michigan | Hamilton T.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Gow K.,Seattle Childrens Hospital Seattle | Barnhart D.,Primary Childrens Medical Center Salt Lake | And 11 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of surgical protocol violations (SPVs) among children undergoing surgery for renal tumors who were enrolled on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) renal tumor biology and classification study AREN03B2. Methods: AREN03B2 was opened in February 2006, and as on March 31, 2013, there were 3,664 eligible patients. The surgical review forms for 3,536 patients with unilateral disease were centrally reviewed for SPVs. The frequency, type, number of violations, institutional prevalence, and quartiles for SPVs were assessed. Results: Of the 3,536 patients, there were a total of 505 with at least one SPV (564 total SPVs reported), for an overall incidence of 14.28%. The types of SPVs included a lack of lymph node sampling in 365 (64.7%), avoidable spill in 61 (10.8%), biopsy immediately before nephrectomy in 89 (15.8%), an incorrect abdominal incision in 32 (5.7%), and unnecessary resection of organs in 17 (3.0%). The SPVs occurred in 163 of 215 participating institutions (75.8%). For centers with at least one SPV, the mean number of SPVs reported was 3.10 ± 2.39 (mean ± standard deviation). The incidence of protocol violation per institution ranged from 0 to 67%. Centers with an average of ≤1 case/year had an incidence of SPVs of 12.2 ± 3.8%, those with an average of >1 to <4 cases/year had an incidence of SPVs of 16.4 ± 3.6%, and those with an average of ≥4 cases/year had an incidence of SPVs of 12.6 ± 5.5% (P > 0.05). Conclusions: SPVs that potentially result in additional exposure to chemotherapy and radiation therapy are not uncommon in children undergoing resection of renal malignancies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Tran N.-T.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Su H.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Khodadadi-Jamayran A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Zhang L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 6 more authors.
EMBO Reports | Year: 2016

Antisense RNAs regulate the transcription and translation of the corresponding sense genes. Here, we report that an antisense RNA, AS-RBM15, is transcribed in the opposite direction within exon 1 of RBM15. RBM15 is a regulator of megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation and is also involved in a chromosome translocation t(1;22) in acute megakaryocytic leukemia. MK terminal differentiation is enhanced by up-regulation of AS-RBM15 expression and attenuated by AS-RBM15 knockdown. At the molecular level, AS-RBM15 enhances RBM15 protein translation in a CAP-dependent manner. The region of the antisense AS-RBM15 RNA, which overlaps with the 5′UTR of RBM15, is sufficient for the up-regulation of RBM15 protein translation. In addition, we find that transcription of both RBM15 and AS-RBM15 is activated by the transcription factor RUNX1 and repressed by RUNX1-ETO, a leukemic fusion protein. Therefore, AS-RBM15 is a regulator of megakaryocyte differentiation and may play a regulatory role in leukemogenesis. © 2016 EMBO.

PubMed | Tokyo Metropolitan Childrens Medical Center Tokyo, Baylor College of Medicine, University of Sheffield, Stanford University and 34 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of endocrinology | Year: 2016

The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH).A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry.Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues.Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors.LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations.

PubMed | Texas Childrens Hospital, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Cincinnati and Baylor College of Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation | Year: 2016

Long-term success in pediatric lung transplantation is limited by infection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). The bilateral sequential lung transplantation (BSLT) technique may result in airway ischemia leading to bronchial stenosis, dehiscence, or loss of small airways. En bloc lung transplant (EBLT) with bronchial artery revascularization (BAR) minimizes airway ischemia, thus promoting superior airway healing. BAR also allows for safe tracheal anastomosis, circumventing the need for bilateral bronchial anastomoses in small children.This was a retrospective review of bilateral transplantations from 2005 to 2014. Both techniques were used in parallel. Redo and multiorgan transplants were excluded.There were 119 recipients comprising 88 BSLTs and 31 EBLTs. Follow-up time was 3 years (interquartile range, 1-5 years). Donor ischemic and cardiopulmonary bypass times were not different between techniques (p = 0.48 and p = 0.18, respectively). Degree of graft dysfunction and cellular rejection scores were not different (p = 0.83 and p = 0.93, respectively). There were 3 hospital deaths after BSLT and 2 after EBLT (p = 0.60). Overall survival was 61% for the BSLT group and 77% for the EBLT group (p = 0.54). Freedom from BOS was 71% in the BSLT group and 94% in the EBLT group (p = 0.08). On routine bronchoscopy, 57% BSLT and 16% EBLT patients had 1 or more airway ischemic findings (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed BSLT was associated with higher ischemic injury (relative risk, 2.86; 95 confidence interval, 1.3-6.5; p = 0.01) and non-airway complications (relative risk, 4.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-20.2; p = 0.04) but not airway reinterventions (p = 0.07). Airway dehiscence occurred in 3 BSLT patients.Pediatric EBLT with BAR can be safely performed without increasing operative or graft ischemic times. Airway ischemia and non-airway complications were significantly reduced when BAR was combined with tracheal anastomosis, potentially diminishing morbidity caused by anastomotic healing complications.

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