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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Tocchio S.,University of Pittsburgh | Kline-Fath B.,Cincinnati | Kanal E.,University of Pittsburgh | Schmithorst V.J.,University of Pittsburgh | Panigrahy A.,University of Pittsburgh
Seminars in Perinatology | Year: 2015

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the developing brain has dramatically increased over the last decade. Faster acquisitions and the development of advanced MRI sequences, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion imaging, functional MR imaging (fMRI), and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), as well as the use of higher magnetic field strengths has made MRI an invaluable tool for detailed evaluation of the developing brain. This article will provide an overview of the use and challenges associated with 1.5-T and 3-T static magnetic fields for evaluation of the developing brain. This review will also summarize the advantages, clinical challenges, and safety concerns specifically related to MRI in the fetus and newborn, including the implications of increased magnetic field strength, logistics related to transporting and monitoring of neonates during scanning, and sedation considerations, and a discussion of current technologies such as MRI conditional neonatal incubators and dedicated small-foot print neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) scanners. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Huppert J.S.,Cincinnati
Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology | Year: 2011

To determine the prevalence of vaginal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in sexually active adolescent women. A prospective surveillance study. Patients included 315 sexually active young women (ages 13-24) undergoing routine pelvic examination and wet mount testing in an urban teen health center. Prevalence of vaginal S. aureus and MRSA. S. aureus was present in 16 samples for a point estimate of 5.1% (95% CI: 2.6%-7.5%). MRSA was detected in two samples, giving a vaginal prevalence estimate of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.0% -1.5%). No differences were detected in the prevalence of S. aureus by age or race, although no cases of S. aureus were observed in those under age 15. The prevalence of MRSA in a sample of sexually active adolescents was as rare as reported in other populations. It is unlikely that vaginal MRSA is a reservoir for community acquired infections. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Farhey D.N.,Cincinnati
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities | Year: 2016

This paper demonstrates the analysis of the relative deterioration trends of the various types of bridge structural design and/or construction to determine and compare their operational structural performances at the serviceability limit states. The study derives operational data from the entire database of the U.S. National Bridge Inventory and analyzes the actual bridge deck areas rather than bridge counts. Deck areas more realistically reflect the actual sizes of bridge types, enabling a more reliable analysis of deterioration trends and providing more objective structural performances. The study analyzes the trends of the proportional accumulation of deterioration by bridge type, considering criteria based on the concept of structural deficiency and the objective of life-cycle expectancy for uninterrupted service life. The multiple-criteria diagnostic approach integrates the rate and pattern performances, based on deterioration trends, with the condition, durability, and longevity performances to determine and compare the overall equivalent structural performances using prioritized weights. As compared to inventory averages, the results reflect the distinct deterioration trends of bridge types and show a decrease in the equivalent structural performances by 10%. As compared to counts, the equivalent structural performances by areas are lower by 3% for all bridge types and 34-40% for some bridges. Also, the annual maximum average accumulation of structural deficiency of all bridge areas is nearly 20% lower than by counts. The average increase in structural deficiency is 0.42% per year, adding to the already existing 9.38% and constituting an average annual increase of structurally deficient (SD) bridge areas by 4.48%. The analysis also identifies premature accelerated accumulation of deterioration for a particular age group within a bridge type, indicating a critical need to investigate the etiology of the deterioration and improve existing and future bridges. The study provides a comprehensive national network- level comparative experience of the operational structural performances of bridge types by area under actual practices and circumstances to help identify critical deterioration, forecast future structural performance, and promote the sustainability of bridge types. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Farhey D.N.,Cincinnati
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities | Year: 2015

This paper demonstrates the analysis of the deterioration trends of the various kinds of bridge-construction materials and/or structural designs. The analysis considers bridge-deck areas, rather than discrete counts, to reveal more relevantly the actual constructed capacity that serves traffic mobility and the extent of necessary resources. The study uses the entire database of the U.S. National Bridge Inventory and derives bridge areas by material. The analysis examines material-deterioration aspects of bridge areas at the serviceability limit states. The distinct trends in the accumulation of structural deficiency versus service life of materials provide measures of their deterioration. To determine the operational structural performances based on the deterioration trends, the study uses the criteria of rate and pattern performances. The overall equivalent structural performance considers a multiple-criteria diagnostic approach integrating the rate and pattern with the condition, durability, and longevity performances. The results provide the most comprehensive national network-level comparative experience of the operational structural performances of bridge materials by areas under the actual circumstances. Analysis of the deterioration trends provides an indication of the typical structural deficiency versus service life expected of bridge materials and helps identify critical accumulation of material deterioration by age for focused improvement efforts. The deterioration trends decrease the equivalent structural performances of most bridge materials by approximately 10%. Overall, the equivalent structural performances of bridge materials by areas are slightly lower than by counts. The maximum average accumulation of structural deficiency of all bridge areas is approximately 20% lower than by counts. The average increase of structural deficiency is 0.42% per year, adding to the already existing 9.38% and constituting an average annual increase of structurally deficient bridge areas by 4.48%. The results provide a more objective indication and comparison of structural performance, help forecast future performance, and improve sustainability of bridge materials. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Elwafi P.R.,Cincinnati | Wheeler B.L.,Montclair State University
Arts in Psychotherapy | Year: 2016

A qualitative content analysis was undertaken of music listening logs and songs selected by women participating in a project that provided music therapy for people receiving treatment for breast cancer. Research questions were: (a) What themes emerged from patients as they listened to music that was associated with music therapy sessions that were held during their treatment for breast cancer? (b) What unforeseen information was presented in the listening logs? The following themes were found through the analysis: Relaxation, Memories, Emotions, Spirituality, Beauty, Strength, Energy/Fatigue, Pain Relief, Family, and Physical Problems/Illness. These are discussed with examples from the logs. Implications for understanding patients' experience of cancer and suggestions for using music therapy are included. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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