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Quintero-Bermudez M.A.,CMI Energy | Janssen M.,Chalmers University of Technology | Cohen J.,CIMV | Stuart P.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
Tappi Journal | Year: 2012

A methodology for early design-stage evaluation of biorefinery processes that uses multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) panels was developed with the goal of screening out less promising options. Panel members were asked to rate the relative importance of a set of evaluation criteria for biorefinery process implementation at a pulp and paper mill. Three different panels were conducted, each with this same objective. This report compares and assesses the results from the panels. Two of the MCDM panels were comprised of biorefinery specialists of similar backgrounds from government and academia, and the third panel consisted of pulp and paper industry decision makers. In general, consensus was high between all three panels, and especially between the two biorefinery specialist panels; however, certain differences were noted with the industry panel. For three out of eight criteria, these differences were attributable to a difference in the perspective of the forest industry decision makers and biorefinery specialists. For example, for the return on investment criteria, the specialist panels gave a significantly higher importance to current information from technology suppliers because it provides an important short-term perspective. In contrast, the forest industry decision makers thought that information about a particular technology should be critiqued and adjusted based on a systematic assessment of likely future process performance. Differences between the other criteria were attributed to differing interpretations of the criteria. Source


Cohen J.,CIMV | Stuart P.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
Tappi Journal | Year: 2012

Improving technology readiness and government support have helped some forestry companies to continue to develop their biorefinery strategies over the past few years, including that for ethanol production in some cases. These developing technologies have been proven at various scales, and data required for their evaluation are typically scarce and uncertain. How can forestry companies select the "best" technology among the many options available to them, given this complex and uncertain landscape? The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of an early stage design tool for screening biorefinery technologies, using ethanol production as an example. A set of multidisciplinary criteria are defined that can be interpreted by a stakeholder panel, and calculated based on publically-available data. Then, the criteria are interpreted and weighed using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) analysis in order to make a global evaluation of technologies relative to each other, and identify those that should not be further considered. Source


Mansouri H.R.,University of Lorraine | Mansouri H.R.,University of Zabol | Navarrete P.,University of Lorraine | Pizzi A.,University of Lorraine | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products | Year: 2011

Mixed interior wood panel tannin adhesive formulations were developed in which lignin is in considerable proportion, 50%, of the wood panel binder and in which no "fortification" with synthetic resins, such as isocyanates and phenol-formaldehyde resins as used in the past, was necessary to obtain results satisfying relevant standards. A low molecular mass lignin obtained industrially by formic acid/acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was used. Environment-friendly, non-toxic polymeric materials of natural origin constitute up to 94% of the total panel binder. The wood panel itself is constituted of 99.5% natural materials, the 0.5% balance being composed of glyoxal, a non-toxic and non-volatile aldehyde, and of hexamine already accepted as a non-formaldehyde-yielding compound when in presence of condensed tannin. Both particleboard and two types of plywood were shown to pass the relevant interior standards with such adhesive formulations. Moreover, the much cheaper non-purified organosolv lignin showed the same level of results as the more expensive purified type. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Navarrete P.,University of Lorraine | Pizzi A.,University of Lorraine | Tapin-Lingua S.,Grenoble Institute of Technology | Benjelloun-Mlayah B.,CIMV | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Kraft (LN-T-CO 2-2) and wheat straw (CIMV) glyoxalated lignin mixed with mimosa tannin and hexamine as a hardener were used as wood adhesive resins in particleboard fabrication. The adhesive systems proportion used were 40/60 and 50/50 w/w for lignin and tannin, respectively. The gel time test was determined by knowing the polymerization time between the different mixes under the controlled conditions. The results showed a slower polymerization with the kraft lignin/mimosa tannin blending than with the wheat straw lignin/mimosa tannin one. Thermomechanical analyses (TMA) tests were carried out as an indication of the final strength of the adhesive systems revealed by the elasticity modulus (MOE). The MOE results have demonstrated the best mechanical resistance values in 40/60 lignin/mimosa tannin proportion with respectively 3.422 and 3.347 (MPa), for CIMV and LN-T-CO 2-2, and 2.122 (MPa) for 50/50 proportion. Particleboards were prepared and the internal bond (IB) tests were carried out according to the European Standard EN 312. The IB tests confirmed the TMA results. The higher mechanical results of the IB were.43 and 0.53 (MPa), for CIMV and LN-T-CO 2-2 lignin in a 40/60 lignin/mimosa tannin proportion. They were classified as interior panel P2 in according with the standard request EN-312. Free-formaldehyde was determined through the flask method EN 717-3. Particleboards prepared with these natural adhesive resins registered emissions at least 87 and 75% lower than the commercial UF and MUF dhesive resins. The panels were classified as E0. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Navarrete P.,University of Lorraine | Mansouri H.R.,University of Zabol | Pizzi A.,University of Lorraine | Tapin-Lingua S.,Grenoble Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Mixed interior wood panel tannin adhesive formulations were developed in which lignin was in considerable proportion, 50%, of the wood panel binder, and in which no 'fortification' with synthetic resins, such as isocyanates or phenol-formaldehyde resins as used in the past, was necessary to obtain results satisfying relevant standards. A low molecular mass lignin obtained industrially by formic acid/acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was used. Environment-friendly, non-toxic polymeric materials of natural origin constitute up to 94% of the total panel binder. The wood panel itself is constituted of 99.5% natural materials, the balance 0.5% being composed of glyoxal, a non-toxic and non-volatile aldehyde, and of hexamine already accepted as a non-formaldehyde-yielding compound when in presence of very reactive chemical species such as a flavonoid tannin. Particleboards and two types of plywoods were shown to pass the relevant interior standards with such adhesive formulations. Moreover, the much cheaper non-purified organosolv lignin showed the same level of results as the more expensive purified type. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. Source

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