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Barreto A.,Meteorological State Agency of Spain AEMET | Cuevas E.,Meteorological State Agency of Spain AEMET | Granados-Munoz M.-J.,University of Granada | Alados-Arboledas L.,University of Granada | And 11 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2016

This paper presents the new photometer CE318-T, able to perform daytime and night-time photometric measurements using the sun and the moon as light source. Therefore, this new device permits a complete cycle of diurnal aerosol and water vapour measurements valuable to enhance atmospheric monitoring to be extracted. In this study we have found significantly higher precision of triplets when comparing the CE318-T master instrument and the Cimel AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) master (CE318- AERONET) triplets as a result of the new CE318-T tracking system. Regarding the instrument calibration, two new methodologies to transfer the calibration from a reference instrument using only daytime measurements (Sun Ratio and Sun-Moon gain factor techniques) are presented and discussed. These methods allow the reduction of the previous complexities inherent to nocturnal calibration. A quantitative estimation of CE318-T AOD uncertainty by means of error propagation theory during daytime revealed AOD uncertainties (uAOD D) for Langley-calibrated instruments similar to the expected values for other reference instruments (0.002-0.009). We have also found uAOD D values similar to the values reported in sun photometry for field instruments (∼0.015). In the case of the night-time period, the CE318-T-estimated standard combined uncertainty (uAOD D) is dependent not only on the calibration technique but also on illumination conditions and the instrumental noise. These values range from 0.011-0.018 for Lunar Langley-calibrated instruments to 0.012-0.021 for instruments calibrated using the Sun Ratio technique. In the case of moon-calibrated instruments using the Sun-Moon gain factor method and suncalibrated using the Langley technique, we found uAOD D ranging from 0.016 to 0.017 (up to 0.019 in 440 nm channel), not dependent on any lunar irradiance model. A subsequent performance evaluation including CE318-T and collocated measurements from independent reference instruments has served to assess the CE318-T performance as well as to confirm its estimated uncertainty. Daytime AOD evaluation, performed at Izaña station from March to June 2014, encompassed measurements from a reference CE318-T, a CE318-AERONET master instrument, a Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR) and a Precision Spectroradiometer (PSR) prototype, reporting low AOD discrepancies between the four instruments (up to 0.006). The nocturnal AOD evaluation was performed using CE318-T- and starphotometer-collocated measurements and also by means of a day/night coherence transition test using the CE318-T master instrument and the CE318 daytime data from the CE318- AERONET master instrument. Results showed low discrepancies with the star photometer at 870 and 500 nm channels (∼0.013) and differences with AERONET daytime data (1 h after and before sunset and sunrise) in agreement with the estimated uAOD D values at all illumination conditions in the case of channels within the visible spectral range, and only for high moon's illumination conditions in the case of nearinfrared channels. Precipitable water vapour (PWV) validation showed a good agreement between CE318-T and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) PWV values for all illumination conditions, within the expected precision for sun photometry. Finally, two case studies have been included to highlight the ability of the new CE318-T to capture the diurnal cycle of aerosols and water vapour as well as short-term atmospheric variations, critical for climate studies. © 2016 Author(s).

Antoine D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Morel A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Leymarie E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Houyou A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2013

Miniaturized radiance cameras measuring underwater multispectral radiances in all directions at highradiometric accuracy (CE600) are presented. The camera design is described, as well as the main steps of its optical and radiometric characterization and calibration. The results show the excellent optical quality of the specifically designed fish-eye objective. They also show the low noise and excellent linearity of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector array that is used. Initial results obtained in various oceanic environments demonstrate the potential of this instrument to provide new measurements of the underwater radiance distribution from the sea surface to dimly lit layers at depth. Excellent agreement is obtained between nadir radiances measured with the camera and commercial radiometers. Comparison of the upwelling radiance distributions measured with the CE600 and those obtained with another radiance camera also shows a very close agreement. The CE600 measurements allow all apparent optical properties (AOPs) to be determined from integration of the radiance distributions and inherent optical properties (IOPs) to be determined from inversion of the AOPs. This possibility represents a significant advance for marine optics by tying all optical properties to the radiometric standard and avoiding the deployment of complex instrument packages to collect AOPs and IOPs simultaneously (except when it comes to partitioning IOPs into their component parts). © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Mariage V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pelon J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Blouzon F.,INSU | Victori S.,Cimel Electronique
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

The development of a first ever autonomous aerosol and cloud backscatter lidar system for on-buoy arctic observations has been achieved in 2014, within the French EQUIPEX IAOOS project developed in collaboration with LOCEAN at UPMC. This development is part of a larger set-up designed for integrated ocean-ice-atmosphere observations. First results have been obtained from spring to autumn 2014 after the system was installed at the North Pole at the Barneo Russian camp, and in winter-spring 2015 during the Norwegian campaign N-ICE 2015. The buoys were taking observations as drifting in the high arctic region where very few measurements have been made so far. This project required the design and the conception of an all-new lidar system to fit with the numerous constraints of such a deployment. We describe here the prototype and its performance. First analyzes are presented. © 2016 Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences.

Barreto A.,Meteorological State Agency of Spain AEMET | Cuevas E.,Meteorological State Agency of Spain AEMET | Damiri B.,Cimel Electronique | Guirado C.,Meteorological State Agency of Spain AEMET | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2013

This paper presents the preliminary results of nocturnal Aerosol Optical Depth (τa) and Angström Exponent (α) obtained from a new lunar photometer prototype, trade name Cimel CE-318U. Due to the variation of the moon's illumination inherent to the lunar cycle, the typical Langley-plot Method used in solar photometry to calibrate these instruments cannot be applied. In this paper, we propose three different methods to carry out the lunar-photometer calibration. In order to validate the results, we have selected three events which encompass seven nights and ten days under different atmospheric conditions, including several saharan dust intrusions episodes. Method#1 is introduced in this work as a modification of the usual Langley Method. This technique, called Lunar-Langley Method, requires the extraterrestrial irradiances from a lunar irradiance model, providing similar accuracies on τa to those of AERONET (±0.01-0.02). It makes comparable daytime and nighttime measurements. Method#2 consists of transferring the current calibration from a master used by sunphotometers. Its results are again within the limit of accuracy expected for the instrument. Method#3 uses an integrating sphere and the methodology proposed by Li et al. (2008) to determine sky calibration coefficients (Cj) and the instrument's solid angle field-of-view (Ω), respectively. We observe significant τa differences between Method#1 and #3 (up to 0.07), which might be attributed to the errors propagation in Method#3. The good results obtained from the comparison against a second CE-318U prototype, and against daytime data from a Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR), constitute a valuable assessment of CE-318U performance. Results of α and its spectral variation (δα) show good agreement between daytime and nighttime, being able to identify the aerosol properties associated with each event. © Author(s) 2013.

Barreto A.,State Meteorological Agency of Spain AEMET | Cuevas E.,State Meteorological Agency of Spain AEMET | Damiri B.,Cimel Electronique | Romero P.M.,State Meteorological Agency of Spain AEMET | Almansa F.,State Meteorological Agency of Spain AEMET
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2013

In this paper we present the preliminary results of atmospheric column-integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV) obtained with a new Lunar Cimel photometer (LC) at the high mountain Izaña Observatory in the period July-August 2011. We have compared quasi-simultaneous nocturnal PWV from LC with PWV from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and nighttime radiosondes (RS92). LC data have been calibrated using the Lunar Langley method (LLM). We complemented this comparative study using quasi-simultaneous daytime PWV from Cimel AERONET (CA), GPS and RS92. Comparison of daytime PWV from CA shows differences between GPS and RS92 up to 0.18 cm. Two different filters, with and approximate bandwidth of 10 nm and central wavelengths at 938 nm (Filter#1) and 937 nm (Filter#2), were mounted onto the LC. Filter#1 is currently used in operational AERONET sun photometers. PWV obtained with LC-Filter#1 showed an overestimation above 0.18 and 0.25 cm compared to GPS and RS92, respectively, and root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) up to 0.27 cm and 0.24 cm, respectively. Filter#2, with a reduced out-of-band radiation, showed very low differences compared with the same references (0.05 cm) and RMSE values 0.08 cm in the case of GPS precise orbits.

These results demonstrate the ability of the new lunar photometer to obtain accurate and continuous PWV measurements at night, and the remarkable influence of the filter's transmissivity response to PWV determination at nighttime. The use of enhanced bandpass filters in lunar photometry, which is affected by more important inaccuracies than sun photometry, is necessary to infer PWV with similar precision to AERONET. © 2013 Author(s).

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