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Vlasea M.,University of Waterloo | Shanjani Y.,Stanford University | Bothe A.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Kandel R.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | Toyserkani E.,University of Waterloo
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2013

This article presents a novel rapid layered manufacturing approach based on a combined additive manufacturing (AM) process and a UV-based micro-syringe deposition (μSD) technique to be used in the fabrication of bio-ceramic structures with controlled micro-sized channels for bone and osteochondral tissue regeneration. In the proposed rapid manufacturing method, micro-scale sacrificial photopolymer networks are integrated within the manufactured part by depositing the photopolymer on selected bio-ceramic powder layers using an injection system. This AM-μSD method along with a post-processing protocol can potentially overcome current limitations of traditional powder-based AM approaches that are restricted in terms of complexity of internal architecture and feature size. For bone or osteochondral repair applications, the material system composed of the bio-ceramic and sacrificial photopolymer, along with the post-processing protocol, must ensure that the final implants are free from manufacturing residuals that could trigger an immune response post-implantation. In this study, calcium polyphosphate bio-ceramic was used as the substrate material based on prior art, polyvinyl alcohol solution was used as the powder binding agent, and ethoxylated (10 bisphenol A diacrylate) photopolymer solution was used as the sacrificial photopolymer element. Material characterization suggests that the proposed material system along with heat treatment protocol is suitable for the targeted applications where micro-scale channels within the implant are produced by AM-μSD. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London. Source

Shanjani Y.,University of Waterloo | Amritha De Croos J.N.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | Pilliar R.M.,University of Toronto | Kandel R.A.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | Toyserkani E.,University of Waterloo
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) enables the fabrication of anatomically shaped porous components required for formation of tissue engineered implants. This article reports on the characterization of a three-dimensional-printing method, as a powder-based SFF technique, to create reproducible porous structures composed of calcium polyphosphate (CPP). CPP powder of 75-150 μm was mixed with 10 wt % polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymeric binder, and used in the SFF machine with appropriate settings for powder mesh size. The PVA binder was eliminated during the annealing procedure used to sinter the CPP particles. The porous SFF fabricated components were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, micro-CT scanning, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. In addition, mechanical testing was conducted to determine the compressive strength of the CPP cylinders. The 35 vol % porous structures displayed compressive strength on average of 33.86 MPa, a value 57% higher than CPP of equivalent volume percent porosity made through conventional gravity sintering. Dimensional deviation and shrinkage analysis was conducted to identify anisotropic factors required for dimensional compensation during SFF sample formation and subsequent sintering. Cell culture studies showed that the substrate supported cartilage formation in vitro, which was integrated with the top surface of the porous CPP similar to that observed when chondrocytes were grown on CPP formed by conventional gravity sintering methods as determined histologically and biochemically. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Yeganegi M.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | Yeganegi M.,University of Toronto | Kandel R.A.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | Kandel R.A.,University of Toronto | Santerre J.P.,University of Toronto
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2010

The current study analyzes the biodegradation of a polycarbonate polyurethane scaffold intended for the growth of a tissue-engineered annulus fibrosus (AF) disc component. Electrospun scaffolds with random and aligned nanofiber configurations were fabricated using a biodegradable polycarbonate urethane with and without an anionic surface modifier (anionic dihydroxyl oligomer), and the mechanical behavior of the scaffolds was examined during a 4 week biodegradation study. Both the tensile strength and initial modulus of aligned scaffolds (σ = 14 ± 1 MPa, E = 46 ± 3 MPa) were found to be higher than those of random fiber scaffolds (σ = 1.9 ± 0.4 MPa, E = 2.1 ± 0.2 MPa) prior to degradation. Following initial wetting of the scaffold, the initial modulus of the aligned samples showed a significant decrease (dry: 46 ± 3 MPa; pre-wetted: 9 ± 1 MPa, p < 0.001). The modulus remained relatively constant during the remainder of the 4 week incubation period (aligned at 4 weeks: 8.0 ± 0.3 MPa). The tensile strength for aligned fiber scaffolds was affected in the same manner. Similar changes were not observed for the initial modulus of the random scaffold configuration. Biodegradation of the scaffold in the presence of cholesterol esterase (a monocyte derived enzyme) yielded a 0.5 mg week-1 weight loss. The soluble and non-soluble degradation products were found to be non-toxic to bovine AF cells grown in vitro. The consistent rate of material degradation along with stable mechanical properties comparable to those of native AF tissue and the absence of cytotoxic effects make this polymer a suitable biomaterial candidate for further investigation into its use for tissue-engineering annulus fibrosus. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Shanjani Y.,Stanford University | Hu Y.,University of Toronto | Toyserkani E.,University of Waterloo | Grynpas M.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures with 30 volume percent porosity and made by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) were implanted in rabbit femoral condyle sites for 6-wk periods. Two forms of SFF implants with different stacked layer orientation were made in view of prior studies reporting on anisotropic/orthotropic mechanical properties of structures so formed. In addition, porous CPP implants of equal volume percent porosity made by conventional sintering and machining methods were prepared. Bone ingrowth and in vivo degradation of the three different implant types were compared using back-scattered scanning electron microscopy (BS-SEM) of implant samples and quantitative analysis of the images. The results indicated bone ingrowth with all samples resulting in 30-40% fill of available porosity by bone within the 6-wk period. In the 6-wk in vivo period, approximately 7-9% loss of CPP by degradation had occurred. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Taylor D.W.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | Taylor D.W.,Sinai University | Taylor D.W.,University of Toronto | Ahmed N.,CIHR BioEngineering of Skeletal Tissues Team | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry | Year: 2012

To circumvent the problem of a sufficient number of cells for cartilage engineering, the authors previously developed a two-stage culture system to redifferentiate monolayer culture-expanded dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes by co-culture with primary bovine chondrocytes (bP0). The aim of this study was to analyze the composition of the cartilage tissue formed in stage 1 and compare it with bP0 grown alone to determine the optimal length of the co-culture stage of the system. Biochemical data show that extracellular matrix accumulation was evident after 2 weeks of co-culture, which was 1 week behind the bP0 control culture. By 3 to 4 weeks, the amounts of accumulated proteoglycans and collagens were comparable. Expression of chondrogenic genes, Sox 9, aggrecan, and collagen type II, was also at similar levels by week 3 of culture. Immunohistochemical staining of both co-culture and control tissues showed accumulation of type II collagen, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and chondroitin sulfate in appropriate zonal distributions. These data indicate that co-cultured cells form cartilaginous tissue that starts to resemble that formed by bP0 after 3 weeks, suggesting that the optimal time to terminate the co-culture stage, isolate the now redifferentiated cells, and start stage 2 is just after 3 weeks. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

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