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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Katerji N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mastrorilli M.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Cherni H.E.,CIHEAM IAM
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

This study analyses the role of variability induced by climate and soil properties (texture and total available soil water in the root zone, TAW) on the "corn deficit irrigation-water use efficiency" relation over a 25-year period, between 1981 and 2005, in three different sites located in the South of Italy. The analysis of water use efficiency was carried out by means of three indexes: crops water use efficiency (WUEET and WUET) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). These indexes can be obtained by calculating the ratio between the yield and the seasonal values of evapotranspiration (ET), transpiration (T) and irrigation volume (I). After its validation, the STICS model was retained to simulate the variables required to determine these indexes. Climatic variability affected the three indexes in different ways during the 25-year period studied. The dispersion around the mean values of the water use efficiency is 17% on average for the WUE (ET or T) indexes, whereas it could reach 54% for the IWUE index. This last index is only poorly reliable due to the high variability of rainfall during the corn growing season in the Mediterranean region. For the same level of soil water deficit, TAW led to an improvement (the case of the site with a high TAW and loam-clay soil texture), a stabilisation (the case of the site with a high TAW and clay soil texture) or a decrease (the case of the site with a poor TAW and clay soil texture) in WUEET and WUET values. For the same conditions of soil water deficit and TAW, crops water use efficiency was higher in loam textured soil than in clay soil. The results derived by analyzing three indexes (WUEET, WUET and IWUE) converge to the same conclusions on the "corn deficit irrigation-water use efficiency" relation observed at the three different sites. The hypotheses which may explain the differences observed in the different sites studied in terms of water use efficiency are discussed, with the presentation of some suggestions devised for corn irrigation practices. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Le Bars M.,IRD Montpellier | Le Grusse P.,CIHEAM IAM | Albouchi L.,Ecole Superieure DAgriculture de Mograne | Poussin J.-C.,IRD Montpellier
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2011

Until the 2000s, water resources in Tunisia were managed solely by official services without consulting water users. At the local scale, Commissariats Régionaux de Développement Agricole (CRDA), representing the official services, managed water resources. Then, the Tunisian government decided to involve farmers in the local management of water resources by creating the Agricultural Development Association (GDA). At present, water resource management by the CRDA must take into account water demands from GDA farmer representatives, and farmers must become aware of water scarcity and resource sharing. How can the CRDA and GDA envisage cooperative water management? In this paper we present a simulation game requested by Kairouan CRDA agents for building cooperative management of the water resources in a typical small watershed of Central Tunisia. Our aim was to use this game to increase farmers' awareness of resource sharing, scarcity and overexploitation impacts, as well as CRDA agents' awareness of uses that determine the water demand. This game is based on a hydrological model of the watershed and an agroeconomical model of farming systems that use the water resources for irrigation. A simulation game was played with concerned farmers in the GDA but without CRDA agents because of tensions between the groups. This partial failure shows that participative approaches with game supports rely upon maintaining agent motivation throughout the process. Source


Fort F.,Montpellier SupAgro | Palma G.,CIHEAM IAM | Sauvegrain S.A.,Montpellier SupAgro | Sbai H.,CIHEAM IAM | Padilla M.,CIHEAM IAM
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to explore consumer perceptions regarding food sustainability. According to a large survey of 800 people living in three French regions: North, Paris and South, the sustainability of food products has three main dimensions: the product's origin, the production season and organic label. Similarly results show that if the majority of consumers have a positive attitude towards "sustainable" products, only a quarter is ready to adopt new behavior. The results show also a significant difference between these opinions and the 'sustainable' behavior for purchases and consumption. The large gap between reported attitudes and behavior is explained mainly by the price of "sustainable" products. Indeed, the price of sustainable products can be 20-30% more expensive than conventional products. Source


Santucci F.M.,University of Perugia | Pugliese P.,CIHEAM IAM | Abbas S.,CIHEAM IAM | Bteich M.R.,CIHEAM IAM
New Medit | Year: 2012

The reconstruction of the Iraqi agro-food sector has happened with the post conflict decisions largely taken by the Provisional Government, without much involvement of local stake-holders. As a matter of fact, even the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) was largely understaffed and many experienced people had left the country. Presently, Iraqi institutions are becoming stronger and it is possible to imagine a more participatory approach to policy design. Organic agriculture, for several reasons, is one of the likely options, but it needs to be framed within a comprehensive agricultural policy. For this purpose, a SWOT analysis has been conducted with a group of Iraqi MoA officers attending a training program in Italy. Organic agriculture is confirmed as an option for development, but there is a long list of threats which might affect the whole Iraqi agriculture. Source

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