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Sammichele di Bari, Italy

Boari F.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Pace B.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Todorovic M.,CIHEAM | de Palma E.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Cantore V.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production
Italian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

This work focuses on the effects of different salinity and water inputs on the yield of artichoke Violetto di Provenza. Two years of experimental works had been carried out in a site in Southern Italy characterized by semi-arid climate and deep loam soil. Three salinity levels of irrigation water (S0, S1 and S2) with electrical conductivity (ECw) of 0.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1, respectively, were combined with three water regimes (W1, W2 and W3) corresponding in that order to 20 40 and 60% of available water depletion. The overall results of the salinity tolerance are in agreement with those from the literature. However, an higher tolerance to salinity was demonstrated when crop was watered more frequently (at 20% of available water depletion) and a lower one when crop watering was performed less frequently (at 60% of available water depletion). The increase of salinity level reduced marketable yield (from 12.9 to 8.8 Mg ha -1), total heads (from 125,100 to 94,700 n ha -1) and heads mean weight (from 99.9 to 94.6 g), while increased heads dry matter (from 161.8 to 193.6 g kg -1 fw) and reduced edible parte percentage of heads (from 35.2 to 33.2%). Watering regimes, as average of the salinity levels, affected total heads marketable yield (115,350 n ha -1 and 11.4 Mg ha -1 for W1 and W2, 105,900 n ha -1 and 10 Mg ha -1 for W3). In addition, different watering regimes affected the secondary heads yield for which it was reduced by 3% of mean weight. The effect of different watering regimes changed with various salinity levels. In condition of moderate salinity (S1), maximum water depletion fraction to preserve heads number and weight yield was 40 and 20% of total soil available water, respectively. However, with high salinity (S2), maximum water depletion fraction to keep unchanged heads number and weight yield was 20% for both. The level of soil salinity at beginning of the crop cycle favoured the incidence of head atrophy in the main heads produced in the second year. © F. Boari et al., 2012.

Trejo-Pech C.O.,Panamerican University of Mexico | Arellano-Sada R.,UPG | Coelho A.M.,CIHEAM | Weldon R.N.,University of Florida
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2012

Mexico has a long tradition of production and consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly tequila, beer, and mezcal. The Baja California vineyard acreage is veryconcentrated. Less than twenty large vineyards produce almost half of the total grape production in Baja California. In contrast, over 75% of the vineyards are small, less than 20 hectares, and supply 25% of the grape used in wine production. While mechanical harvesting may have economic and technical advantages in other wine regions, Baja California growers argue that manual harvesting increases the quality of wine, as the grapes arrive in better condition at the winery compared with mechanical harvesting. There are about ten institutes of technology or universities around the Baja California wine industry area. The Baja California Wine Route includes other tourist attractions, such as museums, outdoor activities (especially during grape harvest time inAugust and September), and a number of restaurants and hotels geared to tourists.

Lacirignola C.,CIHEAM | Adinolfi F.,University of Bologna | Capitanio F.,University of Naples Federico II
New Medit | Year: 2015

We have experienced a period of great agricultural capacity almost on a global scale, called "the Green Revolution". This is a term used to refer to the remarkable increase in the world agricultural production between the early 1960s and the end of the 1980s. The technological progress experienced in the more developed economies and its transfer to other regions, especially Asia and Latin America, led, at that moment, to the doubling of yields for some cereal crops which are basic for the human diet, like rice, wheat and maize, besides the productivity of other plant species and livestock. This real production boom has been able to meet rising food demand in the past 30 years and has also ensured a certain stability to food prices. What has changed? How can we account for an alarming situation that today goes well beyond the ever-neglected issue of hunger in the world's poor areas? What has compromised the reaching of internationally-agreed goals regarding the war against malnutrition? The international markets for agricultural commodities are the stage on which the new scarcity is shown in all its clarity. The rollercoaster ride of commodity prices fully expresses the tensions between demand and supply which are responsible for price rises. Since for many years these changes have not been perceived or have been at the very least underestimated, in this paper we try to address the impact on food security in Mediterranean Countries of this "new paradigm", emphasizing the most critical aspect drawn from major indicators in the field.

Amrani K.,Groupe de recherche et dinformation pour le developpement durable de lagriculture doasis | Dolle V.,CIHEAM | Toutain G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The present announcement aims to purpose a program for the enduring development of the oasis agronomical system. It has to be done so as to get a highly developing fertility of palm groves and improvement of the resilience ability of the ecosystem. In order to do this, a very accurate diagnosis has to be carried out. It is based on evaluation grids of the biodiversity which requires taking into account various factors: agro-ecological, sociological and economic. This is one of the essential points of the present announcement in order to offer a tool to help make the decision to set up a preservation, restoration and maintenance program of biodiversity. This diagnosis will make it possible to assess the frailties of the agricultural system and the possible future improvements to be made. The design and development of this tool rely on the protection of natural resources and socioeconomic values, which characterizes long-lasting agriculture. This grid consists in quantifying the various components of the oasis agricultural system by giving indicators a numbered mark. Decisions will be made depending on the marked indicators. Methodology consist to make phoenicicultural unities inside date palm oases and each unit will be analyzed from EDAO (Evaluation of Durability of Agroecosystem Oases) grids. Each indicator has capacity to give real assessment of the date palm situation and area research will be axis on weakness parameters. These alteration works would be at the origin of favorable atmosphere of palm groves. © ISHS 2013.

Boari F.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Calabrese N.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Renna M.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Cantore V.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Schiattone M.I.,CIHEAM
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Results of a field research to study the effects of biofertilizers applied by fertigation on gas exchange, yield and quality parameters of broccoli are reported. The trial has been carried out in winter period in Valenzano (BA, Southern Italy) on a sandy clay-loam soil. Three levels of organic fertilization (0, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 of NewFert based on fleshing hydrolyzed, on 4 cultivar of broccoli ('Marathon', 'Lord', 'Chevalier', 'Iron'), were compared. For the 'Marathon' was compared also seedlings grown conventionally with seedlings organically grown ('Marathon' org.). Gas exchange (net assimilation - A, transpiration - T, stomatal conductance - gs), water use efficiency (WUE), yield and quality were detected. The different fertilizer treatments have not affected significantly yield and quality with the exception of the diameter of the inflorescence which increased with the increase of the dose of biofertilizer and ascorbic acid content that, instead, was reduced. The cultivars showed good qualitative characteristics especially nitrate content that did not exceed 350 mg kg-1 f.w. The most productive cultivar was 'Chevalier' (11.8 t ha-1). Nitrate content was low, particularly in 'Lord' and 'Marathon' (160.9 mg kg-1 f.w.), while a high level of ascorbic acid was recorded for 'Chevalier' and 'Iron' (71.9 mg 100 g-1 f.w.). 'Chevalier' and 'Iron' presented the best characteristics for what concern colour, more green and shiny. The type of seedlings did not result in significant effects on gas exchange, yield and quality.

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