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Mohapatra S.,Ehime University | Chakraborty T.,Ehime University | Prusty A.K.,Project Directorate for Farming System Research PDFSR | Prasad K.P.,CIFE | Mohanta K.N.,IFAPA Centro del Llano
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to determine the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic mixture on the nonspecific immune response and disease resistance of Labeo rohita. Fish were fed with six different test diets with or without probiotics, namely, T1 (basal feed [BF] without probiotics), T2 (BF+Bacillus subtilis [BS]+Lactococcus lactis [LL]), T3 (BF+LL+Saccharomyces cerevisiae [SC]), T4 (BF+BS+SC), T5 (BF+BS+LL+SC), and T6 (BF+heat-killed bacteria of BS+LL+SC). During the prechallenge period, significantly higher (P<0.01) nitroblue tetrazolium assay (NBT), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), globulin, and albumin content were recorded in the probiotic-supplemented diet group. Feeding all the three probiotics significantly decreased (P<0.01) the serum aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increased the myeloperoxidase (MPO) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) value. Significant difference in the NBT, Hb, serum albumin, and MPO was noticed in both prechallenged and postchallenged fish. Lowest survivability was recorded in the nonprobiotic fed group, followed by the group fed with heat-killed probiotics, whereas the highest survivability was noticed in the group fed with all the three probiotics in live form. Thus, a probiotic mixture diet constituting of three probiotics in viable form is found to be optimum to enhance the immunity and postinfection survivability in L. rohita fingerlings. © the World Aquaculture Society 2014. Source

Grasso G.,CIFE | Morichetti F.,Polytechnic of Milan | Righetti A.,CIFE | Pietralunga S.M.,CNR Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies | Ubaldi M.C.,CIFE
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2012

The economical sustainability and competitiveness of trackless stationary low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) modules employing Silicon cells is discussed, as proceeding from detailed expressions for the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCoE). The model here introduced accounts for the performance of concentrating optics in terms of a newly defined yearly averaged effective optical performance ratio, Pro,eff. By comparing the LCoEs of standard and LCPV modules, threshold conditions for Pro,eff and for the cost of concentrating optics can be mapped, in dependence on the geometrical concentration, on the cell efficiency and on other sensitive design parameters. In view of competitiveness on the energy market, elevated Pro,eff has more economical relevance than either high geometrical gain or reduced cost of the optics. Results highlight that stationary LCPV is a viable approach to leverage the exploitation of high-efficiency Si cells on the PV market. We consider this to be a promising evolution strategy for Silicon-based PV modules. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Morichetti F.,Polytechnic of Milan | Righetti A.,CIFE | Grasso G.,CIFE | Ubaldi M.C.,CIFE | Pietralunga S.M.,CNR Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2012

We introduce and discuss the design of low-concentrating optics for trackless PV modules, to be coupled to high-performance silicon cells, to leverage their economical competitiveness. Aiming at high compatibility with standard installation infrastructures and high energy rating, the leading design rules are the minimization of the aspect ratio of the concentrator and the maximization of the optical collection efficiency for sunlight, whilst accounting for the daily and yearly evolution in the relative orientation of the PV module and the sun. A ray-tracing numerical simulator was used for the design. The result is a prismatic 2D concentrator unit, which features a geometrical gain G= 2 and more than 82% in yearly averaged effective optical performance ratio, if supposed operated in Southern Europe environment, comprising the contribution given by diffused light. The optimized aspect ratio of concentrating optics measures ∼0.27. The prismatic shape of the concentrator can be slightly tuned, to address different orientation in the installation, without impairing the optical performance. The maximization of the effective optical performance ratio contributes to lower the Levelized Cost of Electricity for this solution, what supports the market sustainability of the present approach to trackless LCPV. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Kumar R.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Kumar R.,Indian Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture | Mukherjee S.C.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Ranjan R.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2015

Effect of dietary supplementation of a Gram-positive, aerobic, probiotic bacterium Bacillus subtilis on the immunohaematological indices during pre- and post-challenge in Indian major carp, catla (Catla catla), was studied. The B. subtilis was administered orally at four different doses 1.0 × 106 (T1), 1.0 × 107 (T2), 1.0 × 108 (T3), and 1.0 × 109 (T4) cfu g−1 feed to C. catla for 90 days. The positive control (Cp) and negative control (Cn) were fed with feed without B. subtilis for the same period. On the 60th day, blood and serum were sampled to determine various haematological and serum parameters. Fish were challenged intraperitoneally with Aeromonas hydrophila after 60 days in all the treatment groups and Cp, while the Cn was challenged with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) only. Dietary supplementation of B. subtilis leads to the rise of various immunological and haematological parameters in catla during the pre- and post-challenge. During pre-challenge, the highest TEC (1.30 ± 0.02 × 106 cells mm−3), haemoglobin (7.43 ± 0.25 g %), total serum protein (3.89 ± 0.08 g dL−1), and serum lysozyme activity (8.39 ± 0.01 µg ml−1) were recorded in fishes fed feed containing B. subtilis at 1 × 109 cfu/g feed (T4). The highest survival percentage (86.33 %) was also observed in T4 group. The significantly increased survival percentage (P < 0.05) of B. subtilis-treated groups in comparison with control group (Cp) suggests that dietary supplementation of this probiotic bacterium can protect catla from A. hydrophila infection by enhancing innate immunity. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Mohapatra S.,CIFE | Chakraborty T.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology | Prusty A.K.,CIFRI | Das P.,CIFE | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2012

Six iso-nitrogenous (350g proteinkg -1) and iso-caloric (4100kcalkg -1) diets with or without probiotics supplementation namely T 1 (Basal feed (BF) without probiotics; control), T 2 (BF+Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis), T 3 (BF+L. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), T 4 (BF+B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae), T 5 (BF+B. subtilis, L. lactis and S. cerevisiae) and T 6 (BF+heat-killed bacteria of B. subtilis, L. lactis and S. cerevisiae) were fed to Labeo rohita fingerlings (6.0±0.06g) for 60days in triplicate tanks (30 fish per tank). In all probiotic-supplemented diets, the probiotic concentration was maintained at 10 11cfukg -1 feed. After 60days of culture, the fish fed combination of three probiotics at equal proportion (T 5) had higher (P<0.05) growth, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility and lower (P>0.05) feed conversion ratio over other treatment groups. Total heterotrophic bacterial population in intestine was drastically reduced on 15th and 30th days of sampling than the initial value (0day of sampling) for T 3, T 4 and T 5 groups. Except T 6, the gut colonization of respective probiotics, which were supplemented through the diets, was also increased up to 30days of culture of fish and thereafter remained constant. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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