CIET Trust Botswana

Gaborone, Botswana

CIET Trust Botswana

Gaborone, Botswana

Time filter

Source Type

Mitchell S.,CIETcanada | Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana | Andersson N.,Autonomous University of Guerrero
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2011

Background: Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method. Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence - a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results: Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools - a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions: Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of evidence by planners with limited numeracy skills or little time to look at evidence. Maps complement epidemiological analysis, but they are not a substitute. Much less do they substitute for rigorous epidemiological designs, like randomised controlled trials. © 2011 Mitchell et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Eteng M.,CIET Trust | Mitchell S.,McGill University | Garba L.,CIET Trust | Liman M.,Bauchi State Agency for the Control of HIV AIDS | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Poor people bear a disproportionate burden of malaria and prevention measures may not reach them well. A study carried out to examine the socio-economic factors associated with ownership and use of treated bed nets in Cross River and Bauchi States of Nigeria took place soon after campaigns to distribute treated bed nets. Methods. A cross-sectional household survey about childhood illnesses among mothers of children less than four years of age and focus group discussions in 90 communities in each of the two states asked about household ownership of treated bed nets and their use for children under four years old. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined associations between socio-economic and other variables and these outcomes in each state. Results: Some 72% of 7,685 households in Cross River and 87% of 5,535 households in Bauchi State had at least one treated bed net. In Cross River, urban households were more likely to possess bed nets, as were less-poor households (enough food in the last week), those with a male head, and those from communities with a formal health facility. In Bauchi, less-poor households and those with a more educated head were more likely to possess nets. In households with nets, only about half of children under four years old always slept under a net: 54% of 11,267 in Cross River and 57% of 11,277 in Bauchi. Factors associated with use of nets for young children in Cross River were less-poor households, fewer young children in the household, more education of the father, antenatal care of the mother, and younger age of the child, while in Bauchi the factors were a mother with more education and antenatal care, and younger age of the child. Some focus groups complained of distribution difficulties, and many described misconceptions about adverse effects of nets as an important reason for not using them. Conclusion: Despite a recent campaign to distribute treated bed nets, disadvantaged households were less likely to possess them and to use them for young children. Efforts are needed to reach these households and to dispel fears about dangers of using treated nets. © 2014 Eteng et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mitchell S.,CIETcanada | Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana | Lamothe G.,University of Ottawa | Andersson N.,University Autanoma Of Guerrero
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2010

Background. HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled) are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods. We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results. Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions. HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves tested. © 2010 Mitchell et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | McGill University, Primary Health Care Development Agency, Ministry of Women Affairs, CIET Trust Botswana and CIET Trust
Type: | Journal: Violence against women | Year: 2016

A household survey and focus group discussions examined the frequency and risk factors for physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy in two Nigerian states. Some 22% of women in Cross River and 9% in Bauchi reported IPV in their last pregnancy. The risk was higher in communities where more women reported IPV in the past year and lower among less poor women with more educated partners. Women were more likely to experience IPV in pregnancy if they had an income and decided how to spend it. Efforts to reduce IPV in pregnancy should involve communities as well as individuals.


Amuri M.,Ifakara Health Institute | Mitchell S.,CIET Canada | Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana | Andersson N.,University Autoonoma Of Guerrero
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2011

Tanzania has a generalised AIDS epidemic but the estimated adult HIV prevalence of 6% is much lower than in many countries in Southern Africa. HIV infection rates are reportedly higher in urban areas, among women and among those with more education. Stigma has been found to be more common in poorer, less-educated people, and those in rural areas. We examined associations between poverty and other variables and a stigmatising attitude (belief that HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning). The variables we examined in a multivariate model included: food sufficiency (as an indicator of poverty), age, sex, marital status, education, experience of intimate partner violence, condom-related choice disability, discussion about HIV/AIDS, sources of information about HIV/AIDS and urban or rural residence. Of the1130 men and 1803 women interviewed, more than half (58%) did not disagree that HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning. Taking other variables into account, people from the poorest households (without enough food in the last week) were more likely to believe HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.06-1.59). Others factors independently associated with this stigmatising attitude were: having less than primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.62); having experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75); being choice disabled for condom use (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71); and living in rural areas (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06-2.90). The level of HIV and AIDS stigma in Tanzania is high with independent associations with several disadvantages: poverty, less education and living in rural areas. Other vulnerable groups, such as survivors of intimate partner violence, are also more likely to have a stigmatising attitude. HIV prevention programmes should take account of stigma, especially among the disadvantaged, and take care not to increase it. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana | Andersson N.,Autonomous University of Guerrero | Ho-Foster A.,CIET Trust Botswana | Marokoane N.,CIET Trust Botswana | Mziyako B.,Family Life Association of Swaziland FLAS
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2010

Multiple sexual partnerships are a driver of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. Five linked cluster surveys in 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 allowed us to measure changes in rates of multiple partnerships in these clusters in Swaziland. We selected a stratified random sample of census enumeration areas in 2002 and survey teams subsequently revisited this same sample (a random sub-sample in 2005 and 2006). For this study, analysis includes only people aged 18-29 years interviewed in communities included in all five surveys (1862 men and 2701 women). Among men, there was a significant fall in the proportion having multiple partners in the last 12 months (MP12), among those that had any, between 2002 (61%) and 2007 (46%), followed by a slight rise in 2008 (49%). For multiple partnerships in the last six months (MP6 - measured in 2005 and 2006), there was a decrease between 2005 (43%) and 2006 (25%). There was a significant decrease in multiple partnerships in the last month (MP1) between 2005 (35%) and 2006 (16%), followed by an increase in 2007 (24%) and 2008 (25%). Among women, there was a significant decrease in MP12 between 2002 (22%) and 2007 (9%), then a significant increase in 2008 (15%). There was little difference in women's MP6 between 2005 (7%) and 2006 (6%). There was also little change in women's MP1 between 2005 (5%) and 2006 (3%), with an increase from 2007 (3%) to 2008 (6%); the 2006-2008 difference was significant. A 2006 campaign to reduce multiple partnerships may have changed behaviour among men or it may have made them less likely to admit to multiple partners. The recent increase in MP12 and MP1, especially among women, may reflect behaviour or it could reflect increased willingness to report. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana | Milne D.,CIET Trust | Oelofsen M.,Institute for Democracy in South Africa IDASA | Karim E.,HLSP Institute | Andersson N.,University Autanoma Of Guerrero
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2011

Background: In Bangladesh, widespread dissatisfaction with government health services did not improve during the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP) reforms from 1998-2003. A 2003 national household survey documented public and health service users' views and experience. Attitudes and behaviour of health workers are central to quality of health services. To investigate whether the views of health workers influenced the reforms, we surveyed local health workers and held evidence-based discussions with local service managers and professional bodies. Methods. Some 1866 government health workers in facilities serving the household survey clusters completed a questionnaire about their views, experience, and problems as workers. Field teams discussed the findings from the household and health workers' surveys with local health service managers in five upazilas (administrative sub-districts) and with the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA) and Bangladesh Nurses Association (BNA). Results: Nearly one half of the health workers (45%) reported difficulties fulfilling their duties, especially doctors, women, and younger workers. They cited inadequate supplies and infrastructure, bad behaviour of patients, and administrative problems. Many, especially doctors (74%), considered they were badly treated as employees. Nearly all said lack of medicines in government facilities was due to inadequate supply, not improved during the HPSP. Two thirds of doctors and nurses complained of bad behaviour of patients. A quarter of respondents thought quality of service had improved as a result of the HPSP. Local service managers and the BMA and BNA accepted patients had negative views and experiences, blaming inadequate resources, high patient loads, and patients' unrealistic expectations. They said doctors and nurses were demotivated by poor working conditions, unfair treatment, and lack of career progression; private and unqualified practitioners sought to please patients instead of giving medically appropriate care. The BMA considered it would be dangerous to attempt to train and register unqualified practitioners. Conclusions: The continuing dissatisfaction of health workers may have undermined the effectiveness of the HPSP. Presenting the views of the public and service users to health managers helped to focus discussions about quality of services. It is important to involve health workers in health services reforms. © 2011 Cockcroft et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Andersson N.,Autonomous University of Guerrero | Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2012

Interpersonal power gradients may prevent people implementing HIV prevention decisions. Among 7,464 youth aged 15-29 years in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland we documented indicators of choice-disability (low education, educational disparity with partner, experience of sexual violence, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), poverty, partner income disparity, willingness to have sex without a condom despite believing partner at risk of HIV), and risk behaviours like inconsistent use of condoms and multiple partners. In Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, 22.9, 9.1, and 26.1% women, and 8.3, 2.8, and 9.3% men, were HIV positive. Among both women and men, experience of IPV, IPV interacted with age, and partner income disparity interacted with age were associated with HIV positivity in multivariate analysis. Additional factors were low education (for women) and poverty (for men). Choice disability may be an important driver of the AIDS epidemic. New strategies are needed that favour the choice-disabled. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Paredes-Solis S.,Autonomous University of Guerrero | Andersson N.,Autonomous University of Guerrero | Ledogar R.J.,CIETinternational | Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2011

Background: Unofficial payments in health services around the world are widespread and as varied as the health systems in which they occur. We reviewed the main lessons from social audits of petty corruption in health services in South Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan), Africa (Uganda and South Africa) and Europe (Baltic States). Methods. The social audits varied in purpose and scope. All covered representative sample communities and involved household interviews, focus group discussions, institutional reviews of health facilities, interviews with service providers and discussions with health authorities. Most audits questioned households about views on health services, perceived corruption in the services, and use of government and other health services. Questions to service users asked about making official and unofficial payments, amounts paid, service delivery indicators, and satisfaction with the service. Results: Contextual differences between the countries affected the forms of petty corruption and factors related to it. Most households in all countries held negative views about government health services and many perceived these services as corrupt. There was little evidence that better off service users were more likely to make an unofficial payment, or that making such a payment was associated with better or quicker service; those who paid unofficially to health care workers were not more satisfied with the service. In South Asia, where we conducted repeated social audits, only a minority of households chose to use government health services and their use declined over time in favour of other providers. Focus groups indicated that reasons for avoiding government health services included the need to pay for supposedly free services and the non-availability of medicines in facilities, often perceived as due to diversion of the supplied medicines. Conclusions: Unofficial expenses for medical care represent a disproportionate cost for vulnerable families; the very people who need to make use of supposedly free government services, and are a barrier to the use of these services. Patient dissatisfaction due to petty corruption may contribute to abandonment of government health services. The social audits informed plans for tackling corruption in health services. © 2011 Paredes-Solís et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Omer K.,CIET in Pakistan | Cockcroft A.,CIET Trust Botswana | Andersson N.,Autonomous University of Guerrero
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2011

Background: The Bangladesh government implemented a pilot Hospital Improvement Initiative (HII) in five hospitals in Sylhet division between 1998 and 2003. This included management and behaviour change training for staff, waste disposal and procurement, and referral arrangements. Two linked cross-sectional surveys in 2000 and 2003 assessed the impact of the HII, assessing both patients' experience and satisfaction and public views and use of the hospitals. Methods. In each survey we asked 300 consecutive outpatients and a stratified random sample of 300 inpatients in the five hospitals about waiting and consultation time, use of an agent for admission, and satisfaction with privacy, cleanliness, and staff behaviour. The field teams observed cleanliness and privacy arrangements, and visited a sample of households in communities near the hospitals to ask about their opinions and use of the hospital services. Analysis examined changes over time in patients' experience and views. Multivariate analysis took account of other variables potentially associated with the outcomes. Survey managers discussed the survey findings with gender stratified focus groups in each sample community. Results: Compared with 2000, an outpatient in three of the hospitals in 2003 was more likely to be seen within 10 minutes and for at least five minutes by the doctor, but outpatients were less likely to report receiving all the prescribed medicines from the hospital. In 2003, inpatients were more likely to have secured admission without using an agent. Although patients satisfaction with several aspects of care improved, most changes were not statistically significant. Households in 2003 were significantly more likely to rate the hospitals as good than in 2000. Use of the hospitals did not change, except that more households used the medical college hospital for inpatient care in 2003. Focus groups confirmed criticisms of services and suggested improvements. Conclusion: Improvements in some aspects of patients' experience may have been due to the programme, but the decreased availability of medicines in government facilities across the country over the period also occurred in these hospitals. Monitoring patients experience and satisfaction as well as public views and use of hospital services is feasible and useful for assessing service interventions. © 2011 Omer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Loading CIET Trust Botswana collaborators
Loading CIET Trust Botswana collaborators