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Trinidad, Uruguay
Trinidad, Uruguay
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Kalkhoran S.,University of California at San Francisco | Sebrie E.M.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Sandoya E.,CIET | Glantz S.A.,University of California at San Francisco
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015

Introduction: Implementation of smokefree laws is followed by drops in hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases and asthma. The impact of smokefree laws on use of non-hospital medical services has not been assessed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of Uruguay's national 100% smokefree legislation on non-hospital emergency care visits, hospitalizations for bronchospasm, and bronchodilator use. Methods: The monthly number of non-hospital emergency care visits and hospitalizations for bronchospasm, as well as monthly puffs of bronchodilators (total and per person), from 3 years prior to the adoption of the 100% smokefree policy on March 1, 2006, through 5 years after the policy were assessed using interrupted time series negative binomial regression. Data analysis was conducted in 2014. Results: The incidence of non-hospital emergency visits for bronchospasm decreased by 15% (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.85, 95% CI=0.76, 0.94) following implementation of the law. Hospitalizations for bronchospasm did not change significantly (IRR=0.89, 95% CI=0.66, 1.21). Total monthly puffs of salbutamol and ipratropium administered in the non-hospital emergency setting decreased by 224 (95% CI=-372, -76) and 179 (95% CI=-340, -18.6), respectively, from means of 1,222 and 1,007 before the law. Conclusions: Uruguay's 100% smokefree law was followed by fewer emergency visits for bronchospasm and less need for treatment, supporting adoption of such policies in low- and middle-income countries to reduce the disease burden and healthcare costs associated with smoking. © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Karpagam M.,SKCET | Nagarajan N.,CIET
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2014

Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology supports only packet based services. To facilitate better Quality of Service (QoS) for Voice packets, LTE has resorted to Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) approach to deliver voice services. However, the CSFB scheme has many disadvantages whichare discussed in detail in the later stages of the paper. In this paper, we propose a scheduling scheme with voice enhancement for effective delivery of voice services in LTE. The proposed scheme uses packet switching unlike the CSFB scheme which uses circuit switching to guarantee delivery of voice services, thereby, providing the network with the flexibility of resource allocation that is provided in the packet switching. Apart, the simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme was able to achieve the same QoS delivery provided by the CSFB approach. © 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.


Karpagam M.,SKCET | Nagarajan N.,CIET
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2014

In this paper, we propose a novel bandwidth allocation scheme that will guarantee quality-of-service (QoS) support in the downlink (DL) of a LTE-A system. The proposed scheme is developed based on a queuing model that links important performance metrics of DL service flows of LTE-A systems to a set of tunable parameters. Based on the outcome of the results of the queuing model, the performance metrics are set. The bandwidth allocation scheme then uses the pre-determined performance parameters in making the scheduling decisions. In order to achieve the best results from the proposed scheme, the scheme is integrated with the slot allocation process that is carried out in the physical layer. LTE-A systems uses orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) slot allocation mechanism that adapts to channel conditions at the destination mobile stations (MSs). The proposed scheme performs better than the conventional approach in terms of system throughput, delay and packet dropping ratio, thereby, improving the QoS of the overall system. Further the proposed system is simple in design and its cross-layer approach guarantees improved resource utilization especially in the presence of link adaptations and channel fading. Simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides better QoS support for both real-time and non-real-time applications in LTE-A systems. © 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.


Karpagam M.,SKCET | Nagarajan N.,CIET | Abiramiathavi J.,SKCET
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2014

This paper proposes an enhanced error node regaining algorithm to prolong the lifespan of a wireless sensor network when some of the sensor nodes power down. This algorithm is mainly based on the genetic algorithm. The efficiency of the energy can be enhanced by the sparse or compressive sensing feature. Our results show that compact sensing prolongs the network lifespan and is more useful for wireless sensor networks with a smaller coverage area. © 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.


Singla A.,CIET | Singh K.,Guru Nanak Institutions | Yadav V.K.,Galgotias University | Padhy N.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2015

India has gargantuan renewable energy sources. The ministry of new and renewable energy, Government of India has adopted rigorous process of implementation of number of encouraging renewable energy programs. A road map has been provided in various policies to shore up the deployment of renewable energy across the country. The distributed solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants are envisaged to have record growth in India owing to due technology diligence, reducing costs and supportive government policies in renewable rich states. Distributed SPV will gradually become a vital component of energy mix of country. The small gestation period of these plants would help to meet power shortages and improve the grid situation. The issues and challenges of connectivity of distributed energy sources into grid are being addressed by adopting suitable technologies and policies framework. The paper provides the comprehensive study of development of SPV power plants in India. © 2015 IEEE.


Rajakumar C.,CIET | Shankar Kumar K.R.,REC
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2014

PCA and FLDA are mainly used in face recognition and feature extraction. PCA uses eigen vector and FLDA uses within class scatter matrix and between class scatter matrix. When within class matrix becomes singular, it cannot be evaluated. A new method called semi-discrete decomposition is used in single image per person problems. The performance of this method is tested on 4-data bases, namely ORL, UMIST, Poly u-NIR, YALE. The proposed method performs better than SVD based approach and QRCP based approach in terms of recognition rate with training times in two times higher than QRCP. © 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.


Andersson N.,Autonomous University of Guerrero | Paredes-Solis S.,Autonomous University of Guerrero | Milne D.,CIET | Omer K.,CIET | And 3 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Objectives: To study prevalence at two time points and risk factors for experience of forced or coerced sex among school-going youth in 10 southern African countries. Design: Cross-sectional surveys, by facilitated self-administered questionnaire, of in-school youth in 2003 and 2007. Setting: Schools serving representative communities in eight countries (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe) in 2003 and with Tanzania and South Africa added in 2007. Participants: Students aged 11-16 years present in the school classes. Main outcome measures: Experience of forced or coerced sex, perpetration of forced sex. Results: In 2007, 19.6% (4432/25 840) of female students and 21.1% (4080/21 613) of male students aged 11-16 years reported they had experienced forced or coerced sex. Rates among 16-year-olds were 28.8% in females and 25.4% in males. Comparing the same schools in eight countries, in an analysis age standardised on the 2007 Botswana male sample, there was no significant decrease between 2003 and 2007 among females in any country and inconsistent changes among males. In multilevel analysis using generalised linear mixed model, individual-level risk factors for forced sex among female students were age over 13 years and insufficient food in the household; school-level factors were a lower proportion of students knowing about child rights and higher proportions experiencing or perpetrating forced sex; and community-level factors were a higher proportion of adults in favour of transactional sex and a higher rate of intimate partner violence. Male risk factors were similar. Some 4.7% of female students and 11.7% of male students reported they had perpetrated forced sex. Experience of forced sex was strongly associated with perpetration and other risk factors for perpetration were similar to those for victimisation. Conclusions: Forced or coerced sex remained common among female and male youth in 2007.


Angadi S.H.,Anna University | Mohan S.,CIET
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2015

In the direction of performance analysis form based web application development is reckoned in our work. User interface development part of web application development is further taken into consideration. Navigation aspect is emphasasised; to model navigation class diagram in Unified Modeling Language (UML) to Conceptual Data Model (CDM) mapping is carried through. For achieving transformation, in this study design document is parsed then CDM graph is drawn from parsed design data. Directed CDM graph generation using either critical use case or algorithm is conversed. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2015.


Shanthi K.G.,Rmk Engineering College | Nagarajan N.,C.I.E.T
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2013

Finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters are key components used in many digital signal processing (DSP) systems because of their linear phase, stability, fewer finite precision errors and regular structure. The real time realization of FIR filter with less hardware requirement and less latency has become very critical with increasing developments in very large scale integration (VLSI) technology. The objective of this paper to explore the current trends in the development of algorithms and architectures for memory based realization of FIR filters that are mainly concerned with reducing the overall area-delay-power complexities. The purpose of this study is to compare these architectures based on ROM size, delay and throughput. The results presented here would assist the researchers in the field of Digital Signal processing to select best architecture for an application based on requirements. New algorithms and architectures need to be developed to design area-delay-power-efficient FIR filters for various demanding DSP applications. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.


Rajeswari P.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology | Nagarajan N.,C.I.E.T
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2013

In computer networks, network traffic measurement is the process of measuring the amount and type of traffic on a particular network. This is especially important with regard to effective bandwidth management. Hence more sophisticated network traffic monitoring and analysis tools are in need in order to maintain the network system stability and to fix network problems on time or to avoid network failure. Considering this need we propose Field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture for network flow analysis. A decision tree algorithm is also proposed for flow classification. The designed architecture is tested against various real time traffic models created using probability distribution technique. The performance evaluation of this architecture proves that it support the network traffic stream at multi giga bit rate which is better than most of the existing software techniques. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

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