Ciencia Animal

São Luís, Brazil

Ciencia Animal

São Luís, Brazil
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Pontarolo G.H.,Santa Catarina State University | Melo F.D.,Ciencia Animal | Martini C.L.,Santa Catarina State University | Wildemann P.,Ciencia Animal | And 5 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2017

The serrano artisan cheese produced from raw milk of dairy cattle is a typical product of high-altitude farms in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. However, marketing of the cheeses occurs illegally because they lack the minimum maturation period required for cheese produced from raw milk. The production of artisan cheeses is required to follow strict hygiene standards. This study aimed to test the quality and safety of cheeses that were produced in 31 farms of the Serrana region in Santa Catarina after 14 and 28 days of maturation. Coliform count was measured at 35 °C, and presence of other microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were also tested. Fat and protein percentages, acidity, salt content, and humidity were also evaluated. Data were subjected to statistical analyses using the SAS® software. After 14 and 28 days of maturation, 74.19% (23/31) and 64.52% (20/31) of samples, respectively, showed higher numbers of coliforms at 35 °C than those permissible by law. Higher than permissible numbers of E. coli were observed in 45.16% (14/31) and 48.39% (15/31) of the samples analyzed after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Coagulasepositive staphylococci values above 103 CFU/g were observed in 54.84% (17/31) and 51.61% (16/31) of cheese samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Contamination with Salmonella spp. was not detected. However, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b was isolated in 3.23% (1/31) and 6.45% (2/31) of samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. The results of humidity tests classified the cheese samples into three categories: low, medium, and high humidity. Semi fat cheeses were predominant in both maturation periods, although the samples were classified in thin, semi fat, and fat cheeses. The main variations in the compositions of analyzed samples occurred for salt and acidity levels. The maturation process has not proven to be effective in reducing microbiological contamination to compliance levels. Considering the heterogeneity of the analyzed cheese samples, the frequency of non-conformities with respect to microorganisms and pathogens present in the samples, this study indicates the necessity to improve the Serrano artisan cheese production system through adoption of good manufacturing practice measures.

Alves T.P.,Ciencia Animal | Dias K.M.,Ciencia Animal | Dallastra L.J.H.,Ciencia Animal | Fonseca B.L.,Ciencia Animal | Ribeiro-Filho H.M.N.,Santa Catarina State University
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2017

Energy supplementation can increase the consumption of metabolizable energy and substrate for microbial growth, while condensed tannins aid in increasing the duodenal flow of metabolizable proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation and the inclusion of tannin extract (TE) from Acacia mearnsii (Weibull Black, Tanac S. A., Montenegro, Brazil) on the production performance of dairy cows grazing on winter pastures. Nine multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were distributed in a 3 × 3 Latin square experimental design over three periods of 28 days (21 adaptation and 7 sampling). The treatments were: without supplementation (WS), supplementation with 4 kg of corn grain (CG), and corn grain + 80 g of tannin extract (TE). The dry matter (DM) intake from pastures was similar among treatments, but the consumption of DM of the supplement was higher in the CG treatment than that in the TE treatment. The total DM intake was higher for the supplemented animals (17.3 kg•day-1) than that for the unsupplemented animals (14.9 kg•day-1) and in the TE treatment (17.7 kg•day-1) than in the CG treatment (16.7 kg day-1). Milk production increased from the unsupplemented to the supplemented animals (20.9 to 23.5 kg, respectively), while the content of urea N in the milk decreased (12.6 to 10.5 mg•100 mL-1, respectively). There were no differences in milk production or content of milk urea N between the CG and TE treatments. Energy supplementation is a tool for improving the nutritional profile and the performance of dairy cows in mid lactation grazing on annual winter pastures, while tannin extract aids in improving the energy balance.

Afonso V.A.C.,Centro Paula Souza | Costa R.L.D.,Institute Zootecnia | Filho C.V.S.,São Paulo State University | Da Cunha E.A.,Institute Zootecnia | And 2 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2013

This experiment aimed to determine the influence of supplementation with protected fat on nematode infections in periparturient sheep or sheep in their final stage of pregnancy. Fifty Santa Ines ewes received 200 g of concentrate/animal/day, mineral salt and water and were grouped according to their weight, hematocrit and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Two diets were used: a control treatment and a treatment consisting of supplementation with 30 g/animal/day of protected fat in the concentrate. Three monthly evaluations were performed over a total of 84 days of testing. The variables analyzed were weight, body condition, EPG and coprocultures; blood tests were performed for the determination of packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration and total plasma protein, and leukograms and eosinophil counts were performed. For weight and hemoglobin concentrations, interactions were observed between diet and collection date (P<0.05); body condition, total plasma protein, packed cell volume and total leukocytes did not differ statistically among treatments (P> 0. 05) but did differ by collection day (P <0.05). The EPG and eosinophil counts did not differ statistically by either diet or collection date (P>0.05). The genus Haemonchus was predominant, followed by the genera Cooperia, Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum. The protected fat did not decrease EPG and did not improve the blood parameters of infected sheep.

Domingues A.R.,State University Londrina | Da Silva L.D.D.F.,State University Londrina | De Azambuja Ribeiro E.L.,State University Londrina | De Souza Castro V.,Ciencia Animal | And 4 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of cotton meal by sunflower cake in the concentrate ration, on dry matter intake (DMI), pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea in beef steers. The diets were isoprotein (13.0% CP) and isoenergetic (72.0% TDN). In natura sugarcane silage was the only ronghage (40% DM). Five 1/2 Simental x Nelore, castrated males were used, with average weight of 380 kg and 24 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The treatments were: 0% sunflower cake (TG0); 25% sunflower cake (TG25); 50% sunflower cake (TG50); 75% sunflower cake (TG75); and 100% sunflower cake (TG100), based on DM, substituting cotton meal (FA). The experiment was carried out in a 5×5 Latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days. The dry matter intake (DMI) presented significant difference (P < 0.05), showing that substituting cotton meal by sunflower cake resulted in lower DM intake, but this substitution did not (P > 0.05) alter the pH and N-NH3 values of the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea values. It was concluded that sunflower cake can be used in substitution to the cotton meal when mean daily gains are expected, since in high levels of substitution it caused a decrease in DMI.

Castilho C.,University of West Paulista | De Almeidav M.F.,Ciencia Animal | Giometti I.C.,University of West Paulista | Costa M.Z.,Autonomos | And 2 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to test the hormonal protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) with a progesterone vaginal device for six days applying equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) or estradiol benzoate (EB) as an ovulation inducer in ewes. On day 0(D0), the ewes (n=31) received a device containing 0.33 g of intravaginal progesterone (CIDR®) and were divided into three groups. The G-CT (control group) used CIDR for nine days and upon withdrawal of the progesterone, were administered prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) and eCG. In the eCG (G-eCG) group, CIDR was administered for six days, instead of nine as in the G-CT group, followed by PGF2a and eCG after progesterone withdrawal. In the EB (G-EB) group, CIDR was also administered for six days, but eCG was not applied, and EB was used to induce ovulation 24 hours after removing the CIDR and PGF2a application. TAI was realized in all groups 50 hours after CIDR withdrawal. The pregnancy rate in the G-eCG group (66.66%) was higher (p <0.05) than that in the G-EB group (11.11%). The short-term groups showed no difference (p>0.05) compared to the G-CT group (30%). It is possible to reduce the application time of the progesterone and use eCG for TAI in sheep; however, using EB resulted in a low ovulation rate in the sheep.

Bach M.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | Villanova J.A.,Jr. | Tasqueti U.I.,Ciencia Animal | Pimpao C.T.,Processos Biotecnologicos | And 2 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (RLCCr) is one of the most common injuries in the dog and the leading cause of degenerative joint disease (DAD) of the knee. Untreated animals exhibit degenerative joint changes in a few weeks and severe changes within a few months. The severity of degeneration appears to be directly proportional to body size and age. Systemic inflammatory joint diseases are associated with the rupture of this ligament. The aim of this study was to characterize the population of dogs suffering from RLCCr according to the following factors: type of lameness, unilateral or bilateral ligament rupture, breed, age, sex, reproductive status, diet, body weight, presence of DAD and patellar luxation prior to RLCCr. The data base was created from information from medical records of 32 dogs diagnosed with RLCCr in Companion Animals Hospital Uninity, Catholic University of Parana in the period from January 2006 to December 2012. The results showed that most of dogs (56.25%) had weight bearing lameness on initial presentation. The unilateral RLCCr was the most frequent (90.62%), 13.8% of these cases presented RLCCr in the contralateral limb, after an average period of 2 years and 4 months. The most frequent breeds were Toy Poodle (21.9%) and Pitbull (18.75%); mixed breed dogs accounted for 12.5% of cases. The most frequent ages were 2, 3, 4 and 7 years (average = 5.7 years). With respect to sex and reproductive status, females (68.75%) and non-castrated animals (69%) were most affected. As for diet, the majority (59.38%) ate commercial dog food. Regarding body weights, the majority (25%) weighed between 26 and 35 kg. DAD and patellar luxation prior to RLCCr were seen in 53.12% and 21.88% of the patients, respectively. It could be observed that the data in our environment tend to be similar to those of the literature: RLCCr occured in large adult dogs, weighing between 26 and 35 kg with unilateral rupture and weight bearing lameness and affected females more than males. Animals receiving commercial dog food and entire dogs were the most affected. Patellar luxation before RLCCr occurred in a minority of animals, different from the DAD preceding RLCCr, that was seen in most cases.

De Farias M.R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | De Assuncao D.L.,Ciencia Animal | Duarte G.,Ciencia Animal | Vandresen G.,Ciencia Animal | And 2 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

Sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous and zoonotic mycosis, is caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The infection occurs after a traumatic skin injury, while handling plant materials or animals. This disease commonly occurs in cats and is rarely reported in dogs. Herein we report a case of bone sporotrichosis in a dog that presented at the Hospital Unit for Pets (HUP) of the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR). The animal had a 4-month history of lameness in its thoracic limbs. Haematological, radiological, mycological, and histopathological tests were conducted to confirm the diagnosis. The animal was treated for 2 months with a 10 mg kg-1 PO SID dose of itraconazole, but only partial improvement was observed. A 20% supersaturated potassium iodide solution i.e., a 40 mg kg-1 dose every 24 h was then included for regression and healing of the wounds.

De Moura A.B.,Santa Catarina State University | Matiello J.P.,Medicina Veterinaria | Da Silva M.O.,Ciencia Animal | De Souza A.P.,Santa Catarina State University | Sartor A.A.,Santa Catarina State University
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Among domestic species, the horse is one of those most resistant to T. gondii infection; however, upon acute infection, horses may present hyperirritability, poor motor coordination, ocular disorders, and abortion. Herein, we investigated the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, in order to identify possible risk factors for infection in horses and to establish the correlation of T. gondii infection with reproductive and/ or neurological disorders. We collected 615 blood samples from animals in the mountain mesoregion (n=311) and the coastal mesoregion (n=304) of Santa Catarina state. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to identify possible risk factors. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected by immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA.1:64) using RH strain tachyzoites of the protozoan as antigen. Correlation (P<0.05) between seropositivity and race, sex, age, diet, contact with other animals, reproductive and/or neurological disorders, and origin were assessed. The overall incidence of seropositivity was 10.4% (64/615), and in the mountain and coastal regions, 10.3% and 10.5%, respectively. The reciprocal of the titles observed was: 1:64 (36), 1:256 (26) and 1:1024 (two). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between regions, and there was no correlation between seropositivity and the variables analyzed.

Herkenhoff M.E.,Ciencia Animal | Backes R.G.,Ciencia Animal | Gaulke R.,Analises Geneticas | Remualdo V.R.,Analises Geneticas
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial | Year: 2012

Plasma homocysteine, associated with a mutation in the methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, is regarded as a risk factor for coronary disease. The aim of this study was to determine the number of individuals with this mutation. The exams were sent to the laboratory Genolab, comprising the city of Curitiba-PR. We analyzed reports from a two-year period through real-time PCR method. Twenty-three individuals were homozygous for genotype C, 9 were homozygous for T and 35 were heterozygous. The detection of this mutation is vital to determine the suitable approach in the initial treatment of patients with correlated coronary diseases.

De Moraes Jardim Filho R.,Ciencia Animal | Stringhini J.H.,Ciencia Animal | Stringhini J.H.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Andrade M.A.,EV UFG | And 5 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

In this experiment it was aimed to determine the best levels of digestible lysine for laying hens in production period. Performance, nutrients intake, metabolism, egg quality, blood parameters and development of reproductive tract for 160 Hy-Line W-36 hens at 25 weeks of age. Hens were distributed in a completely randomized design with four levels of digestible lysine (600, 700, 800 or 900 mg of Lys/kg) and four replicates by using a split spot scheme was used at evaluation of nitrogen balance, blood parameters and reproductive tract. Lysine levels in the diet affected food, protein and energy intakes whose maximum point was noted at the level of 720 mg of Lysine. For egg production, food conversion, and nitrogen balance, the best levels of lysine was 800 mg, 900 mg, and 700 mg, respectively. The digestibility of ethereal extract, egg quality, development of reproductive tract and blood parameters were not affected by levels of digestible lysine in the diet. It is suggested 700 and 800 mg of digestible lysine for metabolism and performance, respectively, and 600 mg for egg quality and better development of the reproductive trait. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

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