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Puerto Montt, Chile

Reid B.L.,Austral University of Chile | Hernandez K.L.,Austral University of Chile | Bauer G.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | Lorca M.,CIEN Austral | And 2 more authors.
Conservation Letters | Year: 2012

The diatom Didymosphenia geminata, which forms nuisance blooms in low nutrient streams worldwide, was documented as an aggressive invader in South America in 2010 from the Futaleufú basin (43.2°S), in Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia. Within 1 year it was confirmed from 20 rivers distributed over 800 km. Driven by perceived economic impacts to tourism and recreation, a strong response ensued, with education, monitoring and nascent biosecurity efforts based on similar measures in New Zealand. Considering the difficulty in containment (potential range on New Zealand's South Island was occupied by D. geminata within 3 years), the much larger potential range, and limited resources or previous experience in managing invaders in continental waters in South America, it is unlikely that current biosecurity measures will produce significant results. Lacking a coordinated strategic approach or conservation priorities, existing efforts may divert resources from alternatives with greater potential for success, while potentially feeding the public perception that the problem is being addressed. We propose a conservation strategy based on best available but incomplete information on habitat requirements, and a conceptual model of invasion vectors to identify defensible conservation zones (islands and hydrographically isolated areas) with greater potential for being maintained invasion-free. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Farias A.,Austral University of Chile | Navarro J.C.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Csic | Cerna V.,Austral University of Chile | Pino S.,CIEN Austral | Uriarte I.,Austral University of Chile
Ciencias Marinas | Year: 2011

Twelve females of the Patagonian red octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus, of 1.4 ± 0.2 kg, were maintained at 12 °C under three conditioning treatments: T1 (F10%), frozen fish at 10% daily body weight (bwt d-1); T2 (FC (3:1) 10%), mix (3:1) of frozen fish and fresh crab at 10% bwt d-1; and T3 (F7.5%), frozen fish at 7.5% bwt d-1. Egg laying was observed after four months of conditioning, when from 545 to 1100 °C days had been reached, and when females had increased 1.5 times in body weight. Absolute fecundity reached 2129 eggs (±1182) per female in treatments T1 and T2, whereas in T3 fecundity reached only 56 eggs. The lowest values of perivitelline protein were obtained in T1 and T2, while total lipid content in the yolk was similar among treatments. The most frequent fatty acids in egg yolk were 16:0, 17:0, 17:1, 18:0, 20:1, 20:4n-6, 23:0, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. Significant differences in fatty acid contents among treatments were observed only for 16:1 and 22:5n-3. The results showed that females can be conditioned for egg production even when fed a diet lacking crustaceans, and that a dietary reduction of 7.5% bwt d-1 diminished fecundity without affecting egg quality in terms of their biochemical composition. Source


Farias A.,Austral University of Chile | Pereda S.V.,CIEN Austral | Uriarte I.,Austral University of Chile | Dorner J.,Austral University of Chile | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Patagonian octopus fed with moist diets formulated with several local feed ingredients. All formulated diets were based on crab paste (70%) and the experimental feed ingredient (30%). Experiment 1 assayed salmon meal, prime sardine meal, and wheat gluten, using fresh fish as a control; experiment 2 assayed prime fish meal and macroalgal meal against crab paste alone as a control. The ingestion rate was lower than expected for all diets except those of fresh fish, crab paste alone, and crab paste plus prime sardine meal. No significant differences were found in the observed digestibility of the diets, indicating, in general, low digestibility, even for fresh fish. The highest protease values were observed for crab paste plus prime sardine meal in both experiments. The better growth of Enteroctopus. megalocyathus was obtained when these were fed fresh fish, which was associated with the greater consumption observed in this diet, as neither the digestibility nor the enzymatic activities of the hepatopancreas were related to this greater growth. Source


Uriarte I.,Austral University of Chile | Iglesias J.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Domingues P.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Rosas C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 13 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2011

The increasing market demand for cephalopods and the experiences obtained with different species has boosted the interest in developing their culture in Latin America. In 2008, an international workshop was held in Puerto Montt, Chile, with 14 experts in experimental cephalopods aquaculture from Brazil, Chile, Spain, and Mexico. Several topics were approached within the holobenthic species Octopus maya and the merobenthic species Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Octopus vulgaris, and Robsonella fontaniana. Part of the conclusions demonstrated that the two greatest difficulties for their production were survival of paralarvae for merobenthic species, and survival of early juveniles for holobenthic species. Besides, there is a need to study the endogenous and exogenous factors affecting health and nutritional status of embryos, paralarvae, and juveniles. These stages, which may limit the culture, should be extensively studied in order to develop the appropriate environmental conditions and culture systems for the physiological and behavioral requirements, from egg incubation up to juveniles to reach a grow-out phase. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2011. Source


Gutierrez R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Farias A.,CIEN Austral | Farias A.,Austral University of Chile | Yany G.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | And 2 more authors.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2012

The mating behavior of eight couples of Enteroctopus megalocyathus was evaluated under laboratory conditions by videotaping for 24 h. The precopulatory behavior (CP) was characterized by three patterns (swimming, exhibition and contact) and copulatory behavior (CC) was characterized by display of a single pattern (copulation). Of the total interaction time between octopuses, 34.4% corresponds to CP and 65.6% corresponds to CC. Between times of males and females were not significantly different by pattern. In all events, compared to each other for the duration, presented the following order: copulation > contact ≥ exhibition ≥ swimming. There was a trend towards longer periods of mating where the female weight was higher than the male, suggesting that female weight is a determining factor in the duration of mating encounters. Source

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