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PubMed | University of Bordeaux 1, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona Institute for Research in Biomedicine, CNRS Laboratory of Oceanic Environments and Paleo-environments (EPOC) and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

Vinas L.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Angeles Franco M.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Antonio Soriano J.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Jose Gonzalez J.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in surface sediments collected at 36 stations along the Spanish Northern continental shelf in March and September 2003, and February 2005. Concentrations of PAHs (Σ13 parent components) were in the range of 22-47528 μg/kg dw, the highest values corresponding to coastal urban-industrial hotspots and decreasing offshore. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that concentrations of total PAHs were below the threshold effect level (TEC) in 27 stations (81%) and above in 7, two of which (Gijon and Bilbao) were above the probable effect concentration (PEC). The detailed study of diagnostic ratios suggested a rather uniform mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH sources along the continental shelf, with a slight decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore. In order to assess the incidence of sediment sampling on the variability of the results, selected stations were also monitored in February and September 2004 and September 2005. The average field variance of the values obtained for each station was 31% that decreased to 23% when the values were normalized to TOC. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | CID CSIC, University of Aveiro, CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: | Journal: Archives of toxicology | Year: 2016

Acute organophosphorus (OP) intoxication is a worldwide clinical and public health problem. In addition to cholinergic crisis, neurodegeneration and brain damage are hallmarks of the severe form of this toxidrome. Recently, we generated a chemical model of severe acute OP intoxication in zebrafish that is characterized by altered head morphology and brain degeneration. The pathophysiological pathways resulting in brain toxicity in this model are similar to those described in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of this zebrafish model by testing the effect of a panel of drugs that provide protection in mammalian models. The selected drugs included standard therapy drugs (atropine and pralidoxime), reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (huperzine A, galantamine, physostigmine and pyridostigmine), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (MK-801 and memantine), dual-function NMDA receptor and acetylcholine receptor antagonists (caramiphen and benactyzine) and anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone and ibuprofen). The effects of these drugs on zebrafish survival and the prevalence of abnormal head morphology in the larvae exposed to 4M chlorpyrifos oxon [1median lethal concentration (LC

Garnacho E.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Law R.J.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Schallier R.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Albaiges J.,CID CSIC
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

Accidental marine pollution can have major ecological and economic consequences at national and trans-national levels, and there is a need to achieve a better integration of science into actual decision-making systems to support prevention measures, response systems and management activities.. Effective linking mechanisms between R&D and end-users/policy stakeholders are required to ensure the relevance of R&D, effective uptake of R&D outputs, and suitable policy development. Different issues and barriers to effectively link accidental marine pollution R&D effort to end-users concerns and needs and to develop a trans-national strategic approach are identified, analysed, and further developed into recommendations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Morales-Nin B.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Albaiges J.,CID CSIC
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

The aim of the SEAS-ERA initiative (2010-2014), developed within the European Union Framework Programme (EU FPVII) (contract 249552), was to coordinate the structure of national and regional marine and maritime research programs to empower and strengthen marine research all across Europe. A major goal was the development and implementation of common research strategies and programs related to European seas basins. To achieve this goal, SEAS-ERA was applied at two different levels, regional and pan European, to identify common priorities and needs in five areas, namely strategic planning (marine research agendas), joint research activities (common programs and joint calls), marine research infrastructures and human capacity building to reduce imbalances among regions. SEAS-ERA was also strongly committed to enhancing public awareness of marine and maritime scientific and policy issues in Europe. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

This paper describes the characterization and chromosomal distribution of new long repetitive sequences present in all species of the genus Zea. These sequences constitute a family of moderately repetitive elements ranging approximately from 1350 to 1700 copies per haploid genome in modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) and teosinte (Zea diploperennis), respectively. The elements are long, probably larger than 9 kb, and they show a highly conserved internal organization among Zea subspecies and species. The elements are present in all maize chromosomes in an interspersed pattern of distribution, are absent from centromeric and pericentric heterochromatin, and with some clustering in the distal regions of chromosome arms.

Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2013

The effects of three additives-ammonium acetate, ammonium formate, and nicotinic acid-to the liquid chromatographic (LC) eluent and of the vaporizer temperature on the ion formation of N-methyl carbamate pesticides in thermospray (TSP) mass spectrometry was investigated by using filament- or discharge-assisted ionization. Nineteen carbamates and 12 of their known environmental degradation products were used as model compounds. The additives cause a strong reduction in the abundance of the characteristic fragment ions [M + H - CH3NCO](+) and [M - H - CH3NCO](-) for some of the carbamates. The addition of nicotinic acid reduces the quasimolecular ion intensity and, in most cases, produces nicotinic acid adduct ions. The addition of ammonium acetate or ammonium formate increases the intensity of the quasimolecular ion and in most cases produces a base peak for the ammonium adduct ion. The combination of a suppression of fragmentation and an enhancement of quasimolecular ion formation produces an overall gain in sensitivity. As to more specific effects, the addition of the ammonium salts reduces the intensity of M(-) with the chlorinated carbamate barban and suppresses the formation of odd adduct ions in the TSP mass spectra of most other carbamates. Monitoring the intensity of the fragment and the quasimolecular ion signal as a function of the probe stem temperature, and the related probe tip temperature, proved to be an easy method to study the thermal degradation of the carbamates. This monitoring procedure showed that methiocarb and its sulfone already suffer from thermal degradation at a stem temperature of 90C and that these compounds will therefore present problems in quantitation with LC/TSP mass spectrometry.

PubMed | C.I.D. CSIC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemical ecology | Year: 2013

The major component of the sex pheromone of femaleSpodoptera littoralis, (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (1), elicited all steps of the male behavioral sequence, i.e., wing fanning and taking flight, oriented upwind flight and arrival to the middle of the tunnel, close approach and contact with the source. The activity was equivalent to that elicited by virgin females. In the range of doses tested, the dosage of1 had no significant effect on the number of source contacts. Male response was significantly affected by light intensity, being optimum at 3 lux. Activity of the minor components (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (2), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (3), tetradecyl acetate (4), (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (5), and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (6) was significantly lower than that of the major component when assayed individually. In multicomponent blends compound4 appeared to strongly decrease the number of males arrested at the source, the effect being particularly important when compound5 was present in the blend. Results of single sensillum experiments confirmed the existence of two main physiologically distinct sensillar types. The most common type of sensilla contained a neuron that responded specifically to compound1. A second type of sensilla, located laterally on the ventral sensory surface, contained two receptor neurons responding to compound6 and to (Z)-9-tetradecenol. Among short sensilla, one hair responded to compound4 and could represent a minor sensillar type. No sensory neuron was found to detect the other minor pheromone compounds2, 3, and5.

Type: Journal Article | Journal: Planta | Year: 2013

A hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) component of the maize cell wall was shown to be present in different organs of the plant by extraction of cell wall proteins and detection by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Antibodies raised against the protein or against synthetic peptides designed from the protein sequence immunoprecipitated a proline-rich polypeptide which was synthesized in-vitro from poly(A) (+) RNA extracted from different tissues of the plant and from the complete in-vitro-transcribed mRNA. A very low amount of the protein was found in immature embryos. In particular, the protein could not be detected in the scutellum either by Western blotting or by immunocytochemistry. In agreement with this finding, HRGP mRNA was barely detected in the scutellum, in contrast to its accumulation in the embryo axis. Our results indicate the existence of a unique cell wall structure in embryonic tissues from maize as well as a tissuespecific component of the control of maize HRGP gene expression, distinct to others already described such as cell division.

PubMed | C.I.D. CSIC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemical ecology | Year: 2013

The synthesis and biological activity of some analogs of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate1, the major component of the sex pheromone of the processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa is described. The analogs have been formally derived by structural modification of the enyne and acetate functions of the parent compound1. In field tests, trifluoroacetate ester16 and the analog,11, with fluorine substitution at the olefin site, decreased the pheromone action, whereas epoxy derivative,10, from epoxidation of the olefin moiety in1, and propionate ester15 gave synergistic activity. The formate14 had a variable effect according to the composition of the lure. Formal reduction of the enyne to give the acetylene2 was found to retain activity. Alcohols12 and13, resulting from hydrolysis of the enyne1 and acetylene2, respectively, inhibited the action of their parent compounds.

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