Saha S.,CID |
Walia S.,IARI |
Kumar J.,IARI |
Dhingra S.,IARI |
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
Antifeeding and insect growth regulatory effects of saponins and its hydrolyzed products from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi on the insect pest Spodoptera litura (F.) were investigated in the laboratory. D. butyracea saponins as well as their hydrolyzed prosapogenins were found to be better biologically active In controlling pests. A concentration of 1200 and 3400 mg L-1 alkaline and acid hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifeeding and toxic effects to third instar larvae when compared to the emulsified water as control. The n-BuOH extract after prepHPLC separation provided two saponins from the D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyar-nosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-16-α- hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-glc-xyl]-ara (MI-I) and 3-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-0-[ara-xyl-ara]-apiose (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from the S. mukorossi saponin mixture was 3-O-[β-D-xyl-(OAc)-β-D- arabinopyranosyl-β-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O-[β-D- glc·-β-D-glc·β-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Five days after saponin treatment on larvae, the growth index (Gl50) was reduced from 0.92% to 1520 ppm in alkaline hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins. Upon hydrolysis, growth regulatory activity was improved in S. mukorossi saponin, whereas very little difference was found in antifeedant activity. Hydrophile-lipophile balance is important for the proper functioning of saponin/prosapogenin/sapogenin, which could be achieved by manipulating the sugar molecule in the triterpenic skeleton. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
Cinnirella S.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research |
Graziano M.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research |
Pon J.,CID |
Murciano C.,CID |
And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
The Mediterranean region is under the threats of chemical hazardous substances that may reach the sea through direct discharge to marine waters, or indirectly through rivers and run-off from soil or atmospheric deposition. Over the last decades, several regulatory frameworks calling for the development of tools for the sustainable use and management of the marine environment have been adopted, notably the Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea and the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC (MSFD). These initiatives establish that Coastal States must take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain the Good Environmental Status (GEnS) of the marine environment through the application of an Ecosystem-based Approach (EA) to marine management. With the above in mind, we developed a conceptual model for the chemical contamination of the Mediterranean region and attempt to make an integrated assessment for a case study of chemical pollution by mercury and PAHs. Main gaps requiring improvement of knowledge and further monitoring, as well as the key challenges for the implementation of policies that are relevant for the Mediterranean Sea have also been analysed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Bernabeu A.M.,University of Vigo |
Fernandez-Fernandez S.,University of Vigo |
Bouchette F.,Montpellier University |
Rey D.,University of Vigo |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013
Yearly monitoring in one of the most affected coastal zones by the Prestige oil spill, namely Nemiña and O Rostro beaches (NW Spain), has been carried out since 2004. Topographic data of beaches revealed seasonal altimetric changes up to 4. m that would prevent the on shore persistence of oil. However, surficial and subsurficial oil was detected in the intertidal area of both beaches in all campaigns. The hydrocarbon analysis confirmed that this oil corresponded to the Prestige oil, even nine years after the accident. Tar balls were highly biodegraded suggesting that the oil was accumulated on the subtidal sediments for a long time and transported to the coast by the action of waves.The present work provides new evidence of the long term persistence of deep oil spills from wrecks in marine areas where the hydrodynamic conditions play a twofold key role, in determining the exposed coastal area to recurrent contamination and in burying and resurfacing the oil in the intertidal zone. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.