Ericson T.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
Applied Energy | Year: 2011
Offering electricity consumers time-differentiated tariffs may reduce peak consumption if consumers choosing the tariffs are demand responsive. However, one concern is that time-differentiated tariffs may attract consumers who benefit without responding to the price, simply because they have a favourable consumption pattern. It is thus important to understand on which basis consumers choose between tariffs. We model the choice as a function of compensating welfare measures, and use a discrete choice model on data from a residential dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that higher demand flexibility will tend to increase the propensity to select dynamic tariffs, while consumption patterns do not influence tariff choice significantly. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Kelman I.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
Geographical Journal | Year: 2014
Climate change is frequently touted as the biggest development challenge that faces humanity. Such rhetoric may be distracting from other development challenges which need to be addressed simultaneously with climate change. This paper uses the case study of small island developing states (SIDS) affected by climate change to explore how focusing on climate change can depoliticise the challenges that they face. Three linked points of depoliticisation through climate change are exemplified: emphasising the hazard, avoiding other long-term development challenges, and shifting focus away from opportunities for reducing vulnerability, including during community reconstruction. Examples cover scientific and policy discussions, from inside and external to SIDS. Links are made with migration narratives, especially learning from the past and the importance of not rebuilding communities with the same vulnerabilities as before. The fundamental challenge is not so much addressing the hazard of climate change per se, but why SIDS peoples often do not have the resources or options to address climate change and other development challenges themselves. In this regard, climate change brings little that is new to SIDS which continue to be marginalised. © 2013 The Author. The Geographical Journal © 2013 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).
Peters G.P.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2010
Carbon footprints and embodied carbon have a strong methodological foundation and provide valuable input into policy formation. The widespread use of carbon footprints using existing knowledge needs to be encouraged and even regulated. At the product level, carbon footprints can empower consumers to shape their own climate friendly behaviour and help governments design policies that do not give the wrong incentives. Companies can use carbon footprints to reduce exposure to carbon prices or highlight the positive actions they have taken. Cities and regions can use carbon footprints to implement local policies that help meet overarching national objectives. National carbon footprints can help design equitable and efficient climate agreements that avoid shifting problems to other administrative territories. Further advances can provide strong interdisciplinary links between the physical carbon-cycle, emission drivers, and policy at a variety of scales. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Amundsen H.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
Ecology and Society | Year: 2012
This article contributes to our understanding of community resilience. Community resilience is the ability of a community to cope and adjust to stresses caused by social, political, and environmental change and to engage community resources to overcome adversity and take advantage of opportunities in response to change. Through an analysis of local responses to multiple challenges, six dimensions of community resilience were found in one village in northern Norway. These dimensions; community resources, community networks, institutions and services, people-place connections, active agents, and learning; are activated in processes and activities in the village to respond to current challenges. Although this corroborates findings from other community resilience research, this research suggests that community resilience is both complex and dynamic over time. Although communities may consider themselves resilient to today's challenges, the rate and magnitude of expected systemic global changes, especially climate change, means that future resilience cannot be taken for granted. This work concludes that there is a risk that community resilience may be an illusion, leading to complacency about the need for adaption to multiple factors of change. Hence, the ability of communities to actively engage in reflexive learning processes is of importance for both adaptation and future resilience. © 2012 by the author(s).
Mideksa T.K.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2013
This paper explores the economic impact of natural resource endowment using quantitative comparative - case - study. Focusing on the Norwegian economy, due to availability of good quality data, the paper thoroughly examines the impact of petroleum endowment. Although the result suggests that the impact varies from year to year, it remains positive and very large. On average, about 20% of the annual GDP per capita increase is due to the endowment of petroleum resources such as oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, and condensate. Examinations based on sensitivity test, robustness test, dose-response test, and various falsification tests suggest that the finding is robust to alternative explanations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.