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Paz N.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Felipe-Blanco I.,University Hospital of Araba | Royo F.,CIC BioGUNE CIBERehd | Zabala A.,CIC BioGUNE CIBERehd | And 6 more authors.
Chromosome Research | Year: 2015

Down syndrome is a common birth defect caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Chromosomes occupy distinct territories in interphase nuclei, and their distribution within the nuclear space is nonrandom. In humans with Down syndrome, two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. Here, we investigated the nuclear organization of DYRK1A and SOD1, two genes mapping to chromosome 21 that greatly contribute to the pathology. We found that DYRK1A conserves its central positioning between normal and trisomic cells, whereas SOD1 adopts more peripheral distribution in trisomic cells. We also found that the relative position of these genes with respect to each other varies among the different copies of chromosome territories 21 within a cell, and that this distinct distribution is associated with differences in their expression levels. All together, our results may explain, at least in part, the difference in the expression level of these two genes implicated in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Paz N.,University of the Basque Country | Zabala A.,CIC BioGUNE CIBERehd | Royo F.,CIC BioGUNE CIBERehd | Garcia-Orad A.,University of the Basque Country | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Chromosome territories constitute the most conspicuous feature of nuclear architecture, and they exhibit non-random distribution patterns in the interphase nucleus. We observed that in cell nuclei from humans with Down Syndrome two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. To systematically investigate whether the proximally positioned chromosomes were always the same in all cells, we developed an approach consisting of sequential FISH and CISH combined with laser-microdissection of chromosomes from the interphase nucleus and followed by subsequent chromosome identification by microsatellite allele genotyping. This approach identified proximally positioned chromosomes from cultured cells, and the analysis showed that the identity of the chromosomes proximally positioned varies. However, the data suggest that there may be a tendency of the same chromosomes to be positioned close to each other in the interphase nucleus of trisomic cells. The protocol described here represents a powerful new method for genome analysis. © 2013 Paz et al.


Salazar M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Salazar M.,Institute Investigaciones Sanitarias San Carlos IdISSC | Salazar M.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Lorente M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 31 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2015

Tribbles pseudokinase-3 (TRIB3) has been proposed to act as an inhibitor of AKT although the precise molecular basis of this activity and whether the loss of TRIB3 contributes to cancer initiation and progression remain to be clarified. In this study, by using a wide array of in vitro and in vivo approaches, including a Trib3 knockout mouse, we demonstrate that TRIB3 has a tumor-suppressing role. We also find that the mechanism by which TRIB3 loss enhances tumorigenesis relies on the dysregulation of the phosphorylation of AKT by the mTORC2 complex, which leads to an enhanced phosphorylation of AKT on Ser473 and the subsequent hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of the transcription factor FOXO3. These observations support the notion that loss of TRIB3 is associated with a more aggressive phenotype in various types of tumors by enhancing the activity of the mTORC2/AKT/FOXO axis. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of the Basque Country, Autonomous University of Madrid and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular & cellular oncology | Year: 2016

In a recent article, we found that Tribbles pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3) plays a tumor suppressor role and that this effect relies on the dysregulation of the phosphorylation of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 complex), and the subsequent hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of the transcription factor Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3).


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of the Basque Country, Autonomous University of Madrid and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell death and differentiation | Year: 2014

Tribbles pseudokinase-3 (TRIB3) has been proposed to act as an inhibitor of AKT although the precise molecular basis of this activity and whether the loss of TRIB3 contributes to cancer initiation and progression remain to be clarified. In this study, by using a wide array of in vitro and in vivo approaches, including a Trib3 knockout mouse, we demonstrate that TRIB3 has a tumor-suppressing role. We also find that the mechanism by which TRIB3 loss enhances tumorigenesis relies on the dysregulation of the phosphorylation of AKT by the mTORC2 complex, which leads to an enhanced phosphorylation of AKT on Ser473 and the subsequent hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of the transcription factor FOXO3. These observations support the notion that loss of TRIB3 is associated with a more aggressive phenotype in various types of tumors by enhancing the activity of the mTORC2/AKT/FOXO axis.

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