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Alberdi E.,University of the Basque Country | Sanchez-Gomez M.V.,University of the Basque Country | Cavaliere F.,University of the Basque Country | Perez-Samartin A.,University of the Basque Country | And 4 more authors.
Cell Calcium | Year: 2010

Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers accumulate in brain tissue of Alzheimer disease patients and are related to pathogenesis. The precise mechanisms by which Aβ oligomers cause neurotoxicity remain unresolved. In this study, we investigated the role of ionotropic glutamate receptors on the intracellular Ca2+ overload caused by Aβ. Using rat cortical neurons in culture and entorhinal-hippocampal organotypic slices, we found that Aβ oligomers significantly induced inward currents, intracellular Ca2+ increases and apoptotic cell death through a mechanism requiring NMDA and AMPA receptor activation. The massive entry of Ca2+ through NMDA and AMPA receptors induced by Aβ oligomers caused mitochondrial dysfunction as indicated by mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Importantly, chronic treatment with nanomolar concentration of Aβ oligomers also induced NMDA- and AMPA receptor-dependent cell death in entorhinal cortex and hippocampal slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that overactivation of NMDA and AMPA receptor, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial damage underlie the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ oligomers. Hence, drugs that modulate these events can prevent from Aβ damage to neurons in Alzheimer's disease. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Porlan E.,CIBER ISCIII | Porlan E.,University of Valencia | Porlan E.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Marti-Prado B.,CIBER ISCIII | And 13 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2014

The identification of mechanisms that maintain stem cell niche architecture and homeostasis is fundamental to our understanding of tissue renewal and repair. Cell adhesion is a well-characterized mechanism for developmental morphogenetic processes, but its contribution to the dynamic regulation of adult mammalian stem cell niches is still poorly defined. We show that N-cadherin-mediated anchorage of neural stem cells (NSCs) to ependymocytes in the adult murine subependymal zone modulates their quiescence. We further identify MT5-MMP as a membrane-type metalloproteinase responsible for the shedding of the N-cadherin ectodomain in this niche. MT5-MMP is co-expressed with N-cadherin in adult NSCs and ependymocytes and, whereas MT5-MMP-mediated cleavage of N-cadherin is dispensable for the regulation of NSC generation and identity, it is required for proper activation of NSCs under physiological and regenerative conditions. Our results indicate that the proliferative status of stem cells can be dynamically modulated by regulated cleavage of cell adhesion molecules. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Carnero E.,University of Navarra | Sutherland J.D.,CIC bioGUNE | Fortes P.,University of Navarra
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2011

Adenovirus infection has a tremendous impact on the cellular silencing machinery. Adenoviruses express high amounts of non-coding virus associated (VA) RNAs able to saturate key factors of the RNA interference (RNAi) processing pathway, such as Exportin 5 and Dicer. Furthermore, a proportion of VA RNAs is cleaved by Dicer into viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs) that can saturate Argonaute, an essential protein for miRNA function. Thus, processing and function of cellular miRNAs is blocked in adenoviral-infected cells. However, viral miRNAs actively target the expression of cellular genes involved in relevant functions such as cell proliferation, DNA repair or RNA regulation. Interestingly, the cellular silencing machinery is active at early times post-infection and can be used to control the adenovirus cell cycle. This is relevant for therapeutic purposes against adenoviral infections or when recombinant adenoviruses are used as vectors for gene therapy. Manipulation of the viral genome allows the use of adenoviral vectors to express therapeutic miRNAs or to be silenced by the RNAi machinery leading to safer vectors with a specific tropism. This article is part of a "Special Issue entitled:MicroRNAs in viral gene regulation". © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kung F.,University of Maryland University College | Anguita J.,CIC bioGUNE | Anguita J.,Ikerbasque | Pal U.,University of Maryland University College
Future Microbiology | Year: 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi, a pathogen transmitted by Ixodes ticks, is responsible for a prevalent illness known as Lyme disease, and a vaccine for human use is unavailable. Recently, genome sequences of several B. burgdorferi strains and Ixodes scapularis ticks have been determined. In addition, remarkable progress has been made in developing molecular genetic tools to study the pathogen and vector, including their intricate relationship. These developments are helping unravel the mechanisms by which Lyme disease pathogens survive in a complex enzootic infection cycle. Notable discoveries have already contributed to understanding the spirochete gene regulation accounting for the temporal and spatial expression of B. burgdorferi genes during distinct phases of the lifecycle. A number of pathogen and vector gene products have also been identified that contribute to microbial virulence and/or persistence. These research directions will enrich our knowledge of vector-borne infections and contribute towards the development of preventative strategies against Lyme disease. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

Green J.,CIC bioGUNE | Grout B.,Copenhagen University
Cryo-Letters | Year: 2010

Direct cryopreservation of overwintering, dormant buds has been applied to nine blackcurrant cultivars, using a 7 day dehydration period at c. -20°C before plunging directly into liquid nitrogen. The buds on shoots thawed from -20°C showed normal development simply by standing them in water and all the cultivars could be successfully recovered (> 58%) by grafting. None of the shoots thawed from liquid nitrogen showed any development after standing in water and all of the grafts failed. Shoots thawed from liquid nitrogen showed significant damage to xylem transport, and the cortical tissues necessary for successful grafting showed significant loss of membrane semipermeability. However, buds excised from shoots immediately after thawing from liquid nitrogen were viable and could be recovered using in vitro culture. Survival ranged from 88 to 55%, depending upon cultivar. © CryoLetters.

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