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Saberianfar R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Saberianfar R.,University of Western Ontario | Sattarzadeh A.,Cornell University | Sattarzadeh A.,Cibus Us Llc | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Protein bodies (PBs) are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), or hydrophobin-I (HFBI). In this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered into all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles. © 2016 Gupta, Sarkar and Senthil-Kumar.

Azoulay-Shemer T.,University of California at San Diego | Palomares A.,University of California at San Diego | Bagheri A.,University of California at San Diego | Israelsson-Nordstrom M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2015

Summary Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2]. [CO2] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV′/FM′) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2-assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Adrian J.,Stanford University | Chang J.,Stanford University | Ballenger C.E.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Bargmann B.O.R.,New York University | And 13 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2015

Developmental transitions can be described in terms of morphology and the roles of individual genes, butalso in terms of global transcriptional and epigenetic changes. Temporal dissections of transcriptome changes, however, are rare for intact, developing tissues. We used RNA sequencing and microarray platforms to quantify gene expression from labeled cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to generate cell-type-specific transcriptomes during development of an adult stem-cell lineage in the Arabidopsis leaf. We show that regulatory modules in this early lineage link cell types that hadpreviously been considered to be under separate control and provide evidence for recruitment ofindividual members of gene families for different developmental decisions. Because stomata are physiologically important and because stomatal lineage cells exhibit exemplary division, cell fate, and cell signaling behaviors, this dataset serves as a valuable resource for further investigations of fundamental developmental processes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Wu M.-F.,University of Pennsylvania | Yamaguchi N.,University of Pennsylvania | Yamaguchi N.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Xiao J.,University of Pennsylvania | And 6 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015

Reprogramming of cell identities during development frequently requires changes in the chromatin state that need to be restricted to the correct cell populations. Here we identify an auxin hormone-regulated chromatin state switch that directs reprogramming from transit amplifying to primordium founder cell fate in Arabidopsis inflorescences. Upon auxin sensing, the MONOPTEROS transcription factor recruits SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ATPases to increase accessibility of the DNA for induction of key regulators of flower primordium initiation. In the absence of the hormonal cue, auxin sensitive Aux/IAA proteins bound to MONOPTEROS block recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ATPases in addition to recruiting a co-repressor/ histone deacetylase complex. This simple and elegant hormone-mediated chromatin state switch is ideally suited for iterative flower primordium initiation and orchestrates additional auxin-regulated cell fate transitions. Our findings establish a new paradigm for nuclear response to auxin. They also provide an explanation for how this small molecule can direct diverse plant responses. © Wu et al.

Gocal G.F.W.,Australian National University | Gocal G.F.W.,CSIRO | Gocal G.F.W.,Cibus Us Llc | King R.W.,CSIRO
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Knowing where and when different genes express at the shoot apex during the transition to flowering will help in understanding this developmental switch. The CDKA family of serine/threonine kinase genes are appropriate candidates for such developmental switching as they are involved in the regulation of the G1/S and G2/M boundaries of the cell cycle (see review by Dudits et al. 2007) and so could regulate increases of cell division associated with flowering. Furthermore, in rice stems the gibberellin (GA) class of plant growth regulators rapidly upregulate CDKA expression and cell division. Thus, CDKA expression might be linked to the florigenic action of GA as a photoperiodically-generated, signal. For the grass Lolium temulentum L., we have isolated an LtCDKA1;1 gene, which is upregulated in shoot apices collected soon after the start of a single florally inductive long day (LD). In contrast to weak expression of LtCDKA1;1 in the vegetative shoot apex, in situ and PCR-based mRNA assays and immunological studies of its protein show very rapid increases in the apical dome at the time that florigenic signals arrive at the apex (<6h after the end of the LD). By ~54h LtCDKA1;1 mRNA is localised to the floral target cells, the spikelet primordia. Later both LtCDKA1;1 mRNA and protein are most evident in floret meristems. Only ~10% of cells within the apical dome are dividing at any time but the LD increase in LtCDKA1;1 may reflect an early transient increase in the mitotic index (Jacqmard et al. 1993) as well as a later increase when spikelet primordia form. Increased expression of an AP1-like gene (LtMADS2) follows that of LtCDKA1;1. Overall, LtCDKA1;1 is a useful marker of both early florigenic signalling and of later morphological/developmental aspects of the floral transition. Journal compilation © CSIRO 2013.

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