Barcelona, Spain


Barcelona, Spain

The Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition is a public research consortium which was founded on November 28, 2006 financed by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación .The CIBERObn gathers 25 investigation groups from different Spanish Hospitals, Universities and Research Centres. Its mission is to promote a better knowledge about the mechanisms contributing to obesity development in order to reduce its incidence and prevalence, as well as its complications, in addition to nutrition-related diseases.The CIBERObn is structured into 8 scientific programs intended to increase the collaboration between researchers, to strengthen synergies and to boost new research lines. Programs are as follows: Nutrition: effects of different types of diet and nutrients on human health. Adipobiology: identification of new signals released by the adipose tissue which are involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Obesity and Cancer: role of those proteins associated with cell cycle on metabolic control and obesity development. Obesity and Cardiovascular risk: hemodynamic, metabolic and inflammatory factors associated to cardiac and vascular diseases in obesity. Neurocognitive and Environmental Factors: environmental and emotional factors in nutrition and obesity disorders. Obesity in Childhood-Adolescence Period: biochemical, hormonal, metabolic, genetic, proteomic and body-composition study in children and adolescents. Biomarkers: new strategies, therapeutic and prevention technologies, biomarkers of obesity. Biological Models and Therapeutic Targets: development and validation of experimental models and therapeutic targets in case of obesity.Additionally, CIBERObn lays a particular emphasis on translational research, specially focusing on research transfer to clinical applications and practices. To this end, two cross-cutting programs have been created: Staff Training and Recruitment, which is intended to train our staff according to our research lines and priorities “Fat Bank” Structural Program: biobank infrastructure connecting the above mentioned programs in a cross way by contributing with common solutions.The Fat Bank is a strategic platform of the CIBERobn which offers the Scientific Community different kinds of biological material which are associated to thorough metabolic phenotyping. This information is entered by means of a tailor-made individualised software. This fat-bank- launched in 2009- currently contains 3000 samples of biologic material from more than 300 individuals. In 2009, 287 indexed articles were published. Their average impact factor is 4.05, which is very high for this subject area. Of them, 67 belong to the first decile and 105 more belong to the first quartile of the subject area of indexed journals. They accumulate a total impact factor of 1,165. Provisional data of 2010 show an increase of 10%, highly improving the international visibility of the consortium. Wikipedia.

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University of Seville and Ciber Isciii | Date: 2016-09-14

The invention relates to an intelligent bioimpedance sensor for biomedical applications, which can carry out bioimpedance measurements in a plurality of configurable frequencies, process data in order to obtain the modulus and the phase of the bioimpedance (or real and imaginary part of the bioimpedance) in each of the frequencies, and wirelessly transmit the results of the processing, configured by means of a device that is in contact with the biological means to be measured by means of a series of electrodes in such a way that the device injects electrical current, via said electrodes, into the biological means, in the different frequencies, and measures the tension generated by the circulation of said current based on the joint operation of various subsystems.

Martinez-Vicente M.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Vicente M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

Neuronal homeostasis depends on the proper functioning of quality control systems like autophagy. This mechanism is responsible of the clearance of misfolded proteins, aggregates and the turnover of organelles within the neuron. Autophagic dysfunction has been described in many neurodegenerative diseases. It can occur at several steps of the autophagic machinery and can contribute to the formation of intracellular aggregates and ultimately to neuronal death. Accordingly restoring autophagy activity in affected neurons can be an attractive therapeutic approach to fight neurodegeneration. In this review we summarize the present encouraging strategies that have been achieved with pharmacological and genetic treatments aimed to induce neuronal autophagy in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lott I.T.,University of California at Irvine | Dierssen M.,CIBER ISCIII
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Improvements in medical interventions for people with Down's syndrome have led to a substantial increase in their longevity. Diagnosis and treatment of neurological complications are important in maintaining optimal cognitive functioning. The cognitive phenotype in Down's syndrome is characterised by impairments in morphosyntax, verbal short-term memory, and explicit long-term memory. However, visuospatial short-term memory, associative learning, and implicit long-term memory functions are preserved. Seizures are associated with cognitive decline and seem to cause additional decline in cognitive functioning, particularly in people with Down's syndrome and comorbid disorders such as autism. Vision and hearing disorders as well as hypothyroidism can negatively impact cognitive functioning in people with Down's syndrome. Dementia that resembles Alzheimer's disease is common in adults with Down's syndrome. Early-onset dementia in adults with Down's syndrome does not seem to be associated with atherosclerotic complications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate recent data on the causative role of specific IgE antibodies, as well as the performance of IgE diagnostic tests, in allergic occupational asthma induced by high (HMW) or low-molecular-weight (LMW) agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE assays are useful to document allergy to most HMW allergens and some LMW agents. These tests, however, are limited by the lack of standardized and commercially available reagents. There is a wide variability among the quality of occupational allergen extracts used for SPT and the sensitivity of several SPT solutions is low. In addition, many individuals with allergen-specific serum IgE and/or positive SPT to specific HMW allergens do not have clinical symptoms. Sensitization or allergenic cross-reactivity to allergens or epitopes from unrelated sources may interfere in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy, giving rise to false-positive results, particularly when cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) are involved. The immune responses to these ubiquitous structures may interfere with the diagnosis of occupational allergy. Component-resolved diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergic diseases (occupational and nonoccupational) using panels of native or recombinant allergens, or micro-arrayed allergens, have been proposed to identify specific molecules responsible for these disorders and to overcome false-positive in-vitro test results. SUMMARY: Improvement and standardization of SPT solutions for occupational allergens are highly recommended. More refined diagnostic tools than specific IgE measurements are being developed, such as inhibition assays of IgE binding to CCDs with specific carbohydrate molecules, and component-resolved diagnosis. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

Purpose of review To describe the recent insights of how molecular diagnosis can be useful to improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and to increase its safety. Recent findings As specific allergen immunotherapy is allergen-specific, the identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of anti-allergic treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may change indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with the use of skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts. These changes in the prescription of immunotherapy after using molecular diagnosis have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in some scenarios. Some patterns of sensitization to grass or olive pollen allergens may identify patients with higher risk of adverse reaction during immunotherapy. Summary Molecular diagnosis, together with other tools and patients' clinical history, can help clinicians better select the most appropriate patients and allergens for specific immunotherapy and, in some cases, predict the risk of adverse reactions. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Carod-Artal F.J.,Virgen Of La Luz Hospital | Gascon J.,CIBER ISCIII
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Chagas disease is a neglected infectious disease in the tropics and an emerging health problem in Europe and the USA. In the past decade, a link has been recorded between ischaemic stroke and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in several epidemiological studies, and an increase in stroke prevalence is expected with the ageing of the population infected with T cruzi in Latin America. Heart failure, mural thrombus, left ventricular apical aneurysm, and several types of cardiac arrhythmias are associated with stroke in Chagas disease. Stroke could also be the first sign of Chagas disease in asymptomatic patients and those with mild systolic dysfunction, so patients with stroke who are from endemic regions should be screened for T cruzi infection. The most frequent stroke syndrome seen in patients with Chagas disease is partial anterior circulation infarction. Stroke recurrence has been estimated to occur in 20% of patients, and secondary prevention measures include chronic anticoagulation in cardioembolic chagasic stroke. So far, no studies have been done to assess the effect of chagasic stroke on vascular dementia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

The literature has shown numerous contributions on the synthesis and physicochemical properties of persistent organic radicals but there are a lesser number of reports about their use as building blocks for obtaining molecular magnetic materials exhibiting an additional and useful physical property or function. These materials show promise for applications in spintronics as well as bistable memory devices and sensing materials. This critical review provides an up-to-date survey to this new generation of multifunctional magnetic materials. For this, a detailed revision of the most common families of persistent organic radicals - nitroxide, triphenylmethyl, verdazyl, phenalenyl, and dithiadiazolyl - so far reported will be presented, classified into three different sections: materials with magnetic, conducting and optical properties. An additional section reporting switchable materials based on these radicals is presented (257 references).

An inactivated mycobacteria for oral use in the prevention of tuberculosis, which are administered using a multi-dose regimen and with a reduced time interval between doses, such as to induce a tolerance-building to infection by the tubercle bacillus. The inactivated bacteria can be used with the aforementioned regimen to control the progression of the infection from a latent state to active tuberculosis.

FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2011

Within a susceptible wild-type population, a small fraction of cells, even <10-9, is not affected when challenged by an antimicrobial agent. This subpopulation has mutations that impede antimicrobial action, allowing their selection during clinical treatment. Emergence of resistance occurs in the frame of a selective compartment termed a mutant selection window (MSW). The lower margin corresponds to the minimum inhibitory concentration of the susceptible cells, whereas the upper boundary, named the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), restricts the growth of the entire population, including that of the resistant mutants. By combining pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic concepts and an MPC strategy, the selection of resistant mutants can be limited. Early treatment avoiding an increase of the inoculum size as well as a regimen restricting the time within the MSW can reduce the probability of emergence of the resistant mutants. Physiological and, possibly, genetic adaptation in biofilms and a high proportion of mutator clones that may arise during chronic infections influence the emergence of resistant mutants. Moreover, a resistant population can emerge in a specific selective compartment after acquiring a resistance trait by horizontal gene transfer, but this may also be avoided to some extent when the MPC is reached. Known linkage between antimicrobial use and resistance should encourage actions for the design of antimicrobial treatment regimens that minimize the emergence of resistance. Emergence of a resistant bacterial subpopulation within a susceptible wild-type population can be restricted with a regimen using an antibiotic dose that is sufficiently high to inhibit both susceptible and resistant bacteria © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bruix J.,CIBER ISCIII | Gores G.J.,Rochester College | Mazzaferro V.,Italian National Cancer Institute
Gut | Year: 2014

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is currently the main event leading to death in patients with cirrhosis. Evolving information suggests that the metabolic syndrome with non-alcoholic liver disease may be an important cause of HCC in addition to viral hepatitis and alcohol-induced liver disease. The molecular pathogenesis is extremely complex and heterogeneous. To date the molecular information has not impacted on treatment decisions. Periodic surveillance imaging of patients with cirrhosis is widely practiced, especially because diagnostic, radiographic criteria for early-stage HCC have been defined (including nodules between 1 and 2 cm) and effective treatment is available for tumours detected at an early stage. Worldwide the approach to resection versus transplantation varies depending upon local resources, expertise and donor availability. The criteria for transplantation are discussed, and the controversial areas highlighted with evidence-based recommendations provided. Several approaches are available for intermediate stage disease, including radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation and radioembolisation; the rationale for these therapies is buttressed by appropriate outcome-based studies. For advanced disease, systemic therapy with sorafenib remains the option best supported by current data. Thus, while several trials have failed to improve the benefits of established therapies, studies assessing the sequential or combined application of those already known to be beneficial are needed. Also, new concepts are provided in regards to selecting and stratifying patients for second-line studies, which may help explain the failure of prior studies.

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