Cali, Colombia
Cali, Colombia

Time filter

Source Type

Thailand, Viet Nam, Cambodia and Lao PDR together have the lion's share of the global cassava export market − more than 90 percent. Viet Nam, the world's second largest exporter of cassava after Thailand, shipped 3.1 million tonnes of cassava products in 2013, worth around US$ 1.1 billion. And the industry could grow as demand for industrial cassava-based products, such as biofuel and livestock feed, increases, especially in China. So when the cassava pink mealybug, which injects a toxin into the cassava plant while feeding on its leaves and stems, causing the plants to wither and die, reappeared in the region several years ago, it was a major concern. Insect pests know no borders; an infestation in one country can spread quickly to a neighbouring one, especially through trade and the movement of cassava planting material. With this in mind, the countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion − where some three million small-scale farmers earn a living by growing cassava − turned to FAO for technical assistance through the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) in controlling the cassava pink mealybug. Drawing on the success that Thailand had in reducing its mealybug population, an FAO TCP project set out to help other countries in the subregion − Cambodia, China, Lao PDR and Viet Nam − do the same. Unleashing parasitic wasps When the invasive cassava pink mealybug first began devastating vast areas of Thailand's cassava crops in 2008, farmers reacted by dousing their fields with toxic insecticides, which posed high environmental and human risks. Yongfan Piao, senior plant protection officer at FAO's regional office in Bangkok, said that the country had lost an estimated six million tonnes of cassava root from the forecast for the 2009/10 harvest. He explained that “the total cost of 6 million tonnes of cassava would be the equivalent of some US$600 million. The estimated losses caused by the mealybug for this period would be over US$14 million.” The Thai government appealed to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Benin for assistance, as countries in Africa had managed to reduce cassava mealybugs decades earlier. This entailed introducing a parasitic wasp known as Anagyrus lopezi into the infected areas. Like the cassava pink mealybug, Anagyrus lopezi is native to South America. The wasp lays its eggs in the mealybug and the growing larvae eat their way out, effectively killing the host. Six million pairs of the parasitic wasp were produced and released in Thailand between July 2010 and August 2011 − a move that, along with the release of local predatory lacewings and training on ecological pest management, helped reduce 166,700 infested hectares in May 2009 to just 10.88 hectares by October 2013. Sharing experiences and knowledge Tapping into Thailand's experience, an FAO project run in collaboration with Thailand’s Departments of Agriculture and Agricultural Extension supported research on the ecology of insect pests and their natural enemies, and provided technical assistance to produce large numbers of biocontrol agents, such as the wasps. Furthermore, the project trained farmers via season-long farmer field schools on integrated pest management strategies that had been developed and successfully applied in Thailand. Knowing what works to control mealybugs and what doesn't is essential. Nguyen Van Tan, a Vietnamese farmer with 38 years of experience growing cassava, saw farmers in his own village spray their infested crops with pesticides "without any effect". What pesticides do, in fact, is kill off cassava mealybug's natural enemies, something Mr. Van Tan and other farmers learned through the training. They also received wasps and instructions on how to release, conserve and monitor them in the fields. At the time, Mr Van Tan's four-month-old cassava crop looked as if it would be a repeat of the previous year's harvest, in which mealybugs destroyed nearly half of his crop. "Some plants looked dead," he said. Shortly after releasing the wasps, however, he noticed fewer mealybugs and new shoots on the plants. This has given him and others in the village renewed confidence and incentive to plant even more cassava the following year. In total, the project trained 853 farmers in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, 321 of them women, to use living organisms to manage pests biologically and to reduce pesticide use. It also strengthened the network of extension workers to provide farmer outreach. The ripple effect The success of the project has also created a ripple effect, attracting the attention of regional research and development organizations such as the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in Colombia and the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Thailand, as well as the public and private sectors. The Government of Viet Nam, for example, is now scaling up successful biological control efforts in all of its provinces affected by mealybug infestations, while Thailand's private sector has invested substantially in the mass rearing of biological control agents. The Government of China has issued various quarantine regulations aimed at preventing the spread of this invasive species. And recently, FAO and CIAT helped authorities in Indonesia, a country not covered by the project, import wasps from Thailand to deal with cassava mealybug incursions on the island of Java. Preparedness is key Cassava is a versatile crop. In addition to being an important food source, it can be made into pellets for animal feed or converted into industrial products, from adhesives and textiles to paper and pharmaceuticals. Because smallholder farmers are the main growers of cassava, its rising demand means that the industry has excellent potential to create jobs and boost incomes in rural communities in the Greater Mekong Subregion. That is why vigilance against pests is so important. In addition to encouraging countries to take precautionary measures, such as strengthening quarantine procedures and setting up surveillance systems, FAO helped raise awareness − especially in China where no incursions have yet been reported − of the risk of mealybug outbreaks. FAO's Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) are targeted, short-term catalytic projects that leverage FAO's technical expertise to address specific problems in agriculture, fisheries, forestry and rural livelihoods among FAO Member countries, producing tangible and immediate results in a cost-effective manner.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

加州戴维斯--(BUSINESS WIRE)--(美国商业资讯)--Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: RKDA)是一家农业技术公司,致力于为农民创造价值,同时造福环境和人类健康,该公司发布了国际热带农业中心(CIAT)开展的一项新研究的结果。该研究名称为“面向非洲的氮利用效率稻米品系的开发及农田产量”,发表于《植物生物技术》杂志(Plant Biotechnology Journal),结果显示,整合Arcadia的氮利用效率(NUE)性状的NERICA稻米品系产量大幅增加。 在跨越3个生长季节和包含高地及洼地稻米生产系统的农田评估中,拥有Arcadia的NUE性状的稻米品系产量在不同氮施用率下均大幅增加。领先的NUE稻米品系显示产量比对照组高34%。 Arcadia总裁兼首席执行官Raj Ketkar表示:“该研究表明,Arcadia的NUE性状能够支持世界上最重要的粮食作物的高产。尽管CIAT研究以NERICA稻米变种为参照,但我们认为,本公司的NUE性状能够大幅增产,减少氮肥使用量,并为农民改进农田经济学指标,这些农民栽种的稻米变种目前正在亚


News Article | November 15, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Asia’s only starch summit features topics concerning price impact on Asian Starch Markets by Simon Bentley, Managing Director of Commoditia who also examines the competitive starch raw materials - corn and cassava. He shares vital insights on the pockets of growth in Asia and the impact of feedstock price fall on processors looking to expand in the region. Lief Chang, Senior Analyst at Rabobank reflects on China’s Corn Reform Policy and what It means for its corn starch processing Industry. The highly competitive cassava and corn starch feedstock markets are examined in sessions on: As the world’s second largest cassava exporter, Vietnam is the apt venue and major focus for the summit with analysis of its New Policy Agenda for Developing the Cassava and Value Chain Industry presented by Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development. Vedan – one of the leading players in Vietnam shares its perspective on ‘Tapioca Starch and Downstream Industries’ in the country, spotlighting on its modified starch and starch syrup development. ‘Biotechnology for Sustainable Cassava Production’ by Vietnam’s Institute of Agricultural Genetics and ‘Sustainable Production of Cassava and Challenges on Getting from Farm to Factory’ by CIAT are two important discussion topics at the January summit. Other value added topics are: Organized by Centre for Management Technology (CMT), an exhibition featuring Paglierani, VetterTec, G - FORCE ASIA and Trislot will be held alongside the summit. For more information about how to participate as delegate, sponsor or exhibitor, visit 6th Starch World Asia website or contact Ms. Huiyan at +65 6346 9113.


News Article | December 22, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

The report "Air Handling Units Market by Application (Commercial, Residential), Type (Packaged, Modular, Custom), Capacity (≤ 5000 m3/h, 5001 - 15000 m3/h, 15001 - 30000 m3/h, 30001 - 50000 m3/h, ≥ 50001 m3/h), Region - Global Forecast to 2026", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is projected to reach USD 12.91 Billion by 2026, at a CAGR of 5.7% from 2016 to 2026. Browse 100 market data Tables and 36 Figures spread through 150 Pages and in-depth TOC on "Air Handling Units Market" http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/air-handling-units-market-84723052.html Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. The increase in demand of air handling units from the application sectors such as commercial buildings, industries, hospitals, universities, data centers, laboratories, and server rooms is propelling the growth of this market. Custom air handling units is the fastest-growing type segment of the global air handling units market The custom air handling units segment is estimated to account for the second-largest share of the air handling units market in 2016, and is projected to be the fastest-growing type segment from 2016 to 2026. The growth is mainly attributed to the rising demand of custom air handling units from the commercial application sectors such as pharmaceutical industries, shopping malls, hospitals, and universities. 15001 - 30000 m3/h capacity segment is anticipated to grow at the highest CAGR from 2016 to 2026 The 15001 - 30000 m3/h capacity segment is anticipated to grow at the highest CAGR in the air handling units market from 2016 to 2026. These are medium size air handling units which are used in commercial applications such as hospitals, shopping malls, commercial buildings, data centers, and laboratories. Due to the increasing awareness regarding the impacts of pollution on environment and human health, there is a high rise in the use of air handling units. Air handling units are not only used for cooling and heating purpose, but also for providing fresh air, humidification, and controlling relative humidity. These features contribute towards the growing demand of 15001 - 30000 m3/h capacity air handling units. Commercial is the fastest-growing application segment of the global air handling units market The commercial segment is estimated to account for the largest share of the Air Handling Units Market in 2016, and is projected to be the fastest-growing segment from 2016 to 2026. This growth can be attributed to the increased demand of air handling units in the commercial application sectors such as shopping malls, hospitals, universities, data centers, industries, cleanrooms, and server rooms. Asia-Pacific estimated to be the largest market for air handling units in 2016 Asia-Pacific is estimated to be the largest market for air handling units in 2016. This large share can be attributed to the growing demand for air handling units from the application sectors such as shopping malls, hospitals, universities, data centers, industries, cleanrooms, and server rooms in this region. Key players operational in the market include Daikin Industries, Ltd. (Japan), Carrier Corporation (U.S.), Trane Inc. (Ireland), Johnson Controls, Inc. (U.S.), GEA Group AG (Germany), Systemair AB (Sweden), Flakt Woods Group (Sweden), CIAT Group (France), Trox GmbH (Germany), and Lennox International Inc. (U.S.), among others. MarketsandMarkets is the largest market research firm worldwide in terms of annually published premium market research reports. Serving 1700 global fortune enterprises with more than 1200 premium studies in a year, M&M is catering to a multitude of clients across 8 different industrial verticals. We specialize in consulting assignments and business research across high growth markets, cutting edge technologies and newer applications. Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model - GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. M&M's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets. The new included chapters on Methodology and Benchmarking presented with high quality analytical infographics in our reports gives complete visibility of how the numbers have been arrived and defend the accuracy of the numbers. We at MarketsandMarkets are inspired to help our clients grow by providing apt business insight with our huge market intelligence repository. Visit MarketsandMarkets Blog @ http://www.marketsandmarketsblog.com/market-reports/chemical Connect with us on LinkedIn @ http://www.linkedin.com/company/marketsandmarkets


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

DAVIS, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: RKDA), an agricultural technology company that creates value for farmers while benefitting the environment and human health, announced the results of a new study conducted by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). The study, “Development and Field Performance of Nitrogen Use Efficient Rice Lines for Africa,” published in the Plant Biotechnology Journal, showed significant yield improvements in NERICA rice lines incorporating Arcadia’s Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) trait. In field evaluations over three growing seasons and in both upland and lowland rice production systems, rice lines with Arcadia’s NUE trait showed substantial yield increases under different nitrogen application rates. The leading NUE rice line showed a 34 percent increase over controls. “This study indicates that Arcadia’s NUE trait can support enhanced yields for the world’s most important food crop,” said Raj Ketkar, president and CEO of Arcadia. “While the CIAT study references NERICA rice varieties, we believe our NUE trait can generate significant yield gains, reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizer, and improve on-farm economics for farmers growing rice varieties currently being commercialized in Asia, the world’s most important production and consumption rice market.” Rice is the world’s most valuable crop, grown on more than 405 million acres globally with a harvest value of $328 billion in 2013, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The crop plays a critical role in food security for more than half of the world’s population. Arcadia’s NUE trait was developed to help farmers increase yields and reduce their use of nitrogen fertilizer, a staple in the agricultural industry for increasing crop yield. Conventional crops only use about half of applied nitrogen fertilizer. Much of the remainder moves through the soil and enters ground and surface water systems, or volatilizes into the air as a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Arcadia’s NUE trait enables plants to use nitrogen more efficiently, helping farmers improve yields while reducing costly fertilizer inputs and improving the environmental footprint of agriculture. The trait’s efficacy has been demonstrated in multiple crops, including rice, wheat, barley and canola. Based in Davis, Calif., Arcadia Biosciences (NASDAQ: RKDA) develops agricultural products that create added value for farmers while benefitting the environment and enhancing human health. Arcadia’s agronomic performance traits, including Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Water Use Efficiency, Salinity Tolerance, Heat Tolerance and Herbicide Tolerance, are all aimed at making agricultural production more economically efficient and environmentally sound. Arcadia’s nutrition traits and products are aimed at creating healthier ingredients and whole foods with lower production costs. For more information, visit www.arcadiabio.com. This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements relating to the company’s NUE trait and the regulatory process for such trait. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially, and reported results should not be considered as an indication of future performance. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: the company’s and its partners’ and affiliates’ ability to identify and isolate desired traits; the company’s and its partners’ ability to develop commercial products incorporating its traits, including NUE, and complete the regulatory review process for such products; the company’s compliance with laws and regulations that impact the company’s business, and changes to such laws and regulations; the company’s future capital requirements and ability to satisfy its capital needs; and the other risks set forth in the company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission from time to time, including the risks set forth in the company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2016 and other filings. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof, and Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. disclaims any obligation to update these forward-looking statements.


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

This report studies Custom Air Handling Units in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering  Daikin Industries  Fläkt Woods Group  Systemair HSK  TROX GmbH  Carrier  DencoHappel  Huntair  Wesper  Dospel  CIAT Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Custom Air Handling Units in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like  North America  Europe  China  Japan  Southeast Asia  India  Split by product type, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into  Type I  Type II  Type III  Split by application, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Custom Air Handling Units in each application, can be divided into  Application 1  Application 2  Application 3 1 Custom Air Handling Units Market Overview  1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Custom Air Handling Units  1.2 Custom Air Handling Units Segment by Type  1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Custom Air Handling Units by Type in 2015  1.2.2 Type I  1.2.3 Type II  1.2.4 Type III  1.3 Custom Air Handling Units Segment by Application  1.3.1 Custom Air Handling Units Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015  1.3.2 Application 1  1.3.3 Application 2  1.3.4 Application 3  1.4 Custom Air Handling Units Market by Region  1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.5 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.6 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Custom Air Handling Units (2011-2021) 2 Global Custom Air Handling Units Market Competition by Manufacturers  2.1 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.2 Global Custom Air Handling Units Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.3 Global Custom Air Handling Units Average Price by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.4 Manufacturers Custom Air Handling Units Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type  2.5 Custom Air Handling Units Market Competitive Situation and Trends  2.5.1 Custom Air Handling Units Market Concentration Rate  2.5.2 Custom Air Handling Units Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers  2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion 3 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2011-2016)  3.1 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production by Region (2011-2016)  3.2 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production Market Share by Region (2011-2016)  3.3 Global Custom Air Handling Units Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2011-2016)  3.4 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.5 North America Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.6 Europe Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.7 China Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.8 Japan Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.9 Southeast Asia Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.10 India Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 4 Global Custom Air Handling Units Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.1 Global Custom Air Handling Units Consumption by Regions (2011-2016)  4.2 North America Custom Air Handling Units Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.3 Europe Custom Air Handling Units Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.4 China Custom Air Handling Units Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.5 Japan Custom Air Handling Units Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.6 Southeast Asia Custom Air Handling Units Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016) 4.7 India Custom Air Handling Units Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016) 5 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type  5.1 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  5.2 Global Custom Air Handling Units Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  5.3 Global Custom Air Handling Units Price by Type (2011-2016)  5.4 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production Growth by Type (2011-2016) 6 Global Custom Air Handling Units Market Analysis by Application  6.1 Global Custom Air Handling Units Consumption and Market Share by Application (2011-2016)  6.2 Global Custom Air Handling Units Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2011-2016)  6.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities  6.3.1 Potential Applications  6.3.2 Emerging Markets/Countries 7 Global Custom Air Handling Units Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis  7.1 Daikin Industries  7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.1.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.1.2.1 Type I  7.1.2.2 Type II  7.1.3 Daikin Industries Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.2 Fläkt Woods Group  7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.2.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.2.2.1 Type I  7.2.2.2 Type II  7.2.3 Fläkt Woods Group Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.3 Systemair HSK  7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.3.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.3.2.1 Type I  7.3.2.2 Type II  7.3.3 Systemair HSK Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.4 TROX GmbH  7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.4.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.4.2.1 Type I  7.4.2.2 Type II  7.4.3 TROX GmbH Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.5 Carrier  7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.5.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.5.2.1 Type I  7.5.2.2 Type II  7.5.3 Carrier Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.6 DencoHappel  7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.6.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.6.2.1 Type I  7.6.2.2 Type II  7.6.3 DencoHappel Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.7 Huntair  7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.7.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.7.2.1 Type I  7.7.2.2 Type II  7.7.3 Huntair Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.8 Wesper  7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.8.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.8.2.1 Type I  7.8.2.2 Type II  7.8.3 Wesper Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.9 Dospel  7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.9.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.9.2.1 Type I  7.9.2.2 Type II  7.9.3 Dospel Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.10 CIAT  7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.10.2 Custom Air Handling Units Product Type, Application and Specification  7.10.2.1 Type I  7.10.2.2 Type II  7.10.3 CIAT Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 8 Custom Air Handling Units Manufacturing Cost Analysis  8.1 Custom Air Handling Units Key Raw Materials Analysis  8.1.1 Key Raw Materials  8.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials  8.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials  8.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials  8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure  8.2.1 Raw Materials  8.2.2 Labor Cost  8.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses  8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Custom Air Handling Units 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers  9.1 Custom Air Handling Units Industrial Chain Analysis  9.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing  9.3 Raw Materials Sources of Custom Air Handling Units Major Manufacturers in 2015  9.4 Downstream Buyers 12 Global Custom Air Handling Units Market Forecast (2016-2021)  12.1 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production, Revenue Forecast (2016-2021)  12.2 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production, Consumption Forecast by Regions (2016-2021)  12.3 Global Custom Air Handling Units Production Forecast by Type (2016-2021)  12.4 Global Custom Air Handling Units Consumption Forecast by Application (2016-2021)  12.5 Custom Air Handling Units Price Forecast (2016-2021)


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Washington D.C., Oct. 24, 2016--A new study has found that vitamin A-biofortified orange maize significantly improves visual functions in children. The study was conducted among school-aged children (4 to 8 years old) in rural Zambia. Children who ate orange maize showed improved night vision within six months. Their eyes adapted better in the dark, improving their ability to engage in optimal day-to-day activities under dim light, such as during dusk and dawn. The study was published in The Journal of Nutrition. "It shows that in populations that are vitamin A deficient, the eyes can respond well to a good source of vitamin A such as orange maize in a fairly short span of time," says lead author Amanda Palmer of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. "It also validates the importance of orange maize for tackling vitamin A deficiency as part of a food-based approach." Vitamin A deficiency occurs on a continuum. Severe vitamin A deficiency with blinding eye disease and a high risk of death from otherwise curable infections is at one end of the spectrum. But, less severe, incipient vitamin A deficiency -- also an important underlying cause of child deaths--is more frequent and difficult to detect. According to the World Health Organization, lack of sufficient vitamin A blinds up to 500,000 children worldwide every year. Impairment of the eyes' ability to adapt to low-light conditions is one of the few measurable signs of vitamin A deficiency at its initial stages. In this study scientists used specialized portable equipment to confirm the benefit of eating vitamin A-rich orange maize in a population with marginal deficiency. "It is an impressive advancement that with portable, more user-friendly equipment scientists are now able to accurately record the changing size of the pupils of the children's eyes," says Erick Boy, Head of Nutrition at HarvestPlus and a pediatrician by training. "In this study, the researchers documented how children's eyes responded to different light conditions before and after a six-month feeding period. This used to be a much more cumbersome task until now." Testing for vitamin A deficiency is problematic because blood collection can prove difficult in rural settings. Levels of vitamin A in the blood may also be affected by other factors, such as infections. Rapid, reliable and non-invasive tools to measure the positive impact of nutritional interventions on the vision of those suffering from marginal deficiency were practically unavailable before this study. Scientists in this study used a new device called a Portable Field Dark Adaptometer (PFDA). The PFDA is a set of goggles manufactured with a digital camera and flash inside. The goggles are connected to a desktop or laptop computer, which can accurately record the response of the pupil in each eye to changing light conditions. The Johns Hopkins team is the first to use this device on a large scale. "Until now, most of the tools and techniques used to measure night vision have relied on dark rooms, which are impractical in rural field settings. And, results were subjective," says Palmer. "With PFDA we don't need a tent or a dark room and it gives accurate results for people aged 3-4 years or older." This randomized efficacy study was conducted in Zambia's Mkushi District among children who were marginally vitamin A deficient. They were served two meals per day, six days a week for six months. Half of the children got meals made from biofortified orange maize, while the other half consumed white maize meals. The children wore PFDA goggles to record pupil response. "We measured the responsiveness of the pupil to light and calculated the change in pupil size over a period of time. These goggles enabled us to monitor something that was not possible before," says Palmer. The biofortified orange maize used in this study was conventionally bred to have higher levels of beta-carotene, a naturally occurring plant pigment that the body converts into vitamin A with higher efficiency as the body stores of the vitamin decrease. More about orange maize in Zambia The Zambian Government is actively promoting vitamin A-rich orange maize developed by HarvestPlus and its partners through conventional plant breeding methods. Maize is a staple food in Zambia and its enrichment can help combat the rampant problem of vitamin A deficiency, whose ill effects can include stunted growth and blindness. Zambia has banned the export of orange maize so that nutritious maize stays in the country to nourish its own people. The country's Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock has included orange maize seeds as one of the material supplies that can be procured under the Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP). The ministry is urging farmers, millers, and seed companies to become ambassadors and advocates of biofortified nutritious maize. This message is reaching Zambians. The adoption rate for orange maize is fairly high in Zambia, and HarvestPlus expects that at least 600,000 households will have adopted the crop by 2020. More about orange maize in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe has become the latest African country to move toward making biofortified nutritious crops widely available to farmers and consumers. On August 18, 2016, the Zimbabwean Government officially launched widespread distribution and marketing of biofortified crop seeds under a project implemented by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). HarvestPlus is a strategic partner and technical advisor to the project. Two biofortified crops -- vitamin A orange maize, and iron and zinc beans -- have already been released, with seeds expected to be available across the country in readiness for the 2016/2017 planting season. Farmers in the country can now access one variety of the orange maize and two of the iron and zinc beans, but will soon have more to choose from when varieties already in the pipeline are released. HarvestPlus improves nutrition and public health by developing and promoting biofortified food crops that are rich in vitamins and minerals, and providing global leadership on biofortification evidence and technology. HarvestPlus is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH). CGIAR is a global agriculture research partnership for a food secure future. Its science is carried out by its 15 research centers in collaboration with hundreds of partner organizations. The HarvestPlus program is coordinated by two of these centers, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).


News Article | August 22, 2016
Site: www.treehugger.com

Selective breeding of crops like maize has been common practice in agriculture for thousands of years. By breeding new varieties of plants, farmers can increase crop yields, prevent the spread of disease, and adapt to droughts or other environmental conditions. Unfortunately, a new study from the University of Leeds reveals that climate change may prove to be the biggest challenge yet for crop breeders. According to the study, rising temperatures and an increased number of droughts brought on by climate change are significantly reducing the crop durations of maize in Africa. Crop durations indicate the length of time between the planting and harvesting of a crop, and the shorter they are, the less time crops have to mature. In the past, farmers have bred new maize varieties that grow in shorter periods of time to combat shifting crop durations and to preserve yields. However, modern breeding techniques simply aren’t fast enough to compete with rapidly changing climate conditions. The process for producing a new crop variety can take up to 30 years. Yet, if the current carbon emissions trajectory doesn’t change, crop durations will drastically shorten as early as 2018 in some regions of Africa, the study finds, and no later than 2031 in most parts of the continent, although a few areas may not be dramatically affected until 2038. sicrump/Flickr/CC BY 2.0This would be disastrous for the millions of Africans who rely on maize for food. Without the ability to quickly adapt their crops to these new conditions, farmers will be forced to harvest maize with diminished biomasses, resulting in insufficient crop yields. The scientists behind the study insist that further research into newer, speedier breeding technologies is a necessary investment to ensure food security. They also propose breeding new crop varieties in greenhouses with high temperatures, mimicking the projected future temperatures of the maize-growing regions of Africa. Andrew Jarvis, one of the directors of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), called new breeding technologies “one of the best investments we can make for climate adaption,” explaining that “climate funds could be used to help the world’s farmers stay several steps ahead of climate change, with major benefits for global food security.” Climate change won’t only affect crops in Africa. The authors of the study believe that tropical environments throughout the world will face similar dilemmas, and farmers everywhere should be prepared.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.npr.org

To Save The Planet, Give Cows Better Pasture The other day, in Puerto Rico, I stumbled across one small piece of an agricultural revolution. It didn't look all that revolutionary — just an abandoned sugar plantation where workers are clearing away a mass of grass, bushes and trees in order to create better pasture for cattle. Mike McCloskey, the dairy magnate who's behind this particular venture, says that the tropical grasses that he's removing are terrible food for cattle; they're full of cellulose and lignin, and not very nutritious. "The problem with tropical pastures, in the past, is that they're very low in their digestibility," he says. McCloskey should know. He grew up in Puerto Rico, worked as a veterinarian with dairy farmers in Mexico and California, then got into dairy farming himself and became one of the biggest milk producers in the United States. He's planning to grow varieties of grass called Mulato and Cayman on this pasture. The grasses grow quickly, they're far more nutritious and cattle love them. And, by the way, they are a key to fighting global warming. "I'm kind of obsessed with this topic" of better pasture for cattle in the tropics, admits Tim Searchinger, a researcher at Princeton University and senior fellow at the World Resources Institute. "It's the single most decisive factor for whether we'll be able to feed the world with an acceptable level of greenhouse gas emissions." Cattle are a huge source of greenhouse gas emissions. According to widely accepted calculations, global livestock production accounts for about 15 percent of all human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. This includes the impact of clearing forests to make way for pastures. But there's an enormous disparity in emissions from cattle in different parts of the world. Basically, the more slowly cattle grow, or the less milk they give, the greater their greenhouse gas emissions per pound of beef or milk. And in many parts of the world, cattle grow very slowly, because they're grazing on sparse and poorly maintained pastures. The impact is astounding. Producing a pound of beef in East Africa probably causes a hundred times more global warming than the same product from a feedlot in the United States. The good news, Searchinger says, is that "there are enormous opportunities to improve efficiency" at a very modest cost. Chief among those opportunities: faster-growing, more nutritious grasses like the ones that McCloskey wants to establish in Puerto Rico. Those grasses are part of a botanical family known by the scientific name Brachiaria that came originally from eastern Africa. Researchers at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), based in Colombia, identified specific varieties that are best for cattle grazing. They're helping to distribute them across the tropics. Commercial seed companies are selling the new seeds in Brazil, Mexico and Kenya. According to Michael Peters, who leads CIAT's research on tropical grazing, pastures made up of these grasses can support three times more cattle, compared to typical tropical pastures today. The animals also gain weight twice as quickly. It translates into a six-fold increase in production per acre, and a dramatic cut in greenhouse emissions. "It sounds too good to be true, but we are completely confident about it," Peters says. There are limitations: Farmers need to manage cattle on these pastures to avoid over-grazing, and add a bit of fertilizer every few years. Also, these grasses need plentiful rainfall — at least 35 inches a year, and a rainy season at least six months long. But compared to their impact, the new grasses really don't cost much. "In rice, you need to invest a lot of money to achieve significant reduction" of greenhouse gas emissions, says Jacobo Arango, a researcher at CIAT. "The same in other crops. Livestock is the sector where you can get more reduction for less money." Adding other plants to the mix of pasture vegetation would make it even better, Peters admits. Legumes like beans or clover would enrich the soil. Trees would provide shade. Such pastures do exist in the tropics, and visiting them is "practically a religious experience," says Searchinger. But Peters says that CIAT's efforts to promote them haven't been very successful. Maintaining them takes too much work. Farmers have been more enthusiastic about all-grass pastures. According to Peters, Brazilian farmers have planted the new grasses on more than 200 million acres of grazing land. Arango says that in some places, improving pastures requires farmers to adopt new attitudes toward grazing. "Maybe people don't think of pasture in the tropics as a crop, or something that they need to invest in," he says. Instead, many farmers think of pasture as something natural "that just grows there, and you put your animals there, and you don't have to do anything more." In Puerto Rico, McCloskey isn't really building these pastures as a way to increase production; instead, it's a way to lower costs. Right now, he says, Puerto Rico's dairy farmers don't graze their dairy cattle outside at all, because their Holstein cows, which were bred in temperate climates to produce lots of milk, don't tolerate tropical heat and insect pests. But keeping cows indoors in the tropics, keeping them cool and bringing in feed from farms far away, involves "tremendous costs," McCloskey says. He thinks these new pastures are one part of the solution. The other part is a new genetic strain of dairy cows that scientists in Brazil created. It's the result of mating a Holstein and a "Brahma-type" breed known as Gyr. Each of the new hybrid animals will be created by in-vitro fertilization. "We'll get good productivity and great tropical resistance to heat and parasites and ticks and all the things that have been difficult" for dairy cattle in the tropics, McCloskey says. McCloskey doesn't expect to set up a large-scale dairy in Puerto Rico himself. His project is supposed to show that cattle grazing can work. He's planning to raise heifers on the pasture and sell them to Puerto Rico's existing dairy farmers, along with beef cattle. If it works, he says, the impact could be enormous. "We believe that the right breed, and the right pastures, can really revolutionize how milk can be produced in the tropics," he says. "Not only in Puerto Rico! We're looking at this as a possibility for great changes all through the tropics."


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.npr.org

To Save The Planet, Give Cows Better Pasture The other day, in Puerto Rico, I stumbled across one small piece of an agricultural revolution. It didn't look all that revolutionary — just an abandoned sugar plantation where workers are clearing away a mass of grass, bushes and trees in order to create better pasture for cattle. Mike McCloskey, the dairy magnate who's behind this particular venture, says that the tropical grasses that he's removing are terrible food for cattle; they're full of cellulose and lignin, and not very nutritious. "The problem with tropical pastures, in the past, is that they're very low in their digestibility," he says. McCloskey should know. He grew up in Puerto Rico, worked as a veterinarian with dairy farmers in Mexico and California, then got into dairy farming himself and became one of the biggest milk producers in the United States. He's planning to grow varieties of grass called Mulato and Cayman on this pasture. The grasses grow quickly, they're far more nutritious and cattle love them. And, by the way, they are a key to fighting global warming. "I'm kind of obsessed with this topic" of better pasture for cattle in the tropics, admits Tim Searchinger, a researcher at Princeton University and senior fellow at the World Resources Institute. "It's the single most decisive factor for whether we'll be able to feed the world with an acceptable level of greenhouse gas emissions." Cattle are a huge source of greenhouse gas emissions. According to widely accepted calculations, global livestock production accounts for about 15 percent of all human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. This includes the impact of clearing forests to make way for pastures. But there's an enormous disparity in emissions from cattle in different parts of the world. Basically, the more slowly cattle grow, or the less milk they give, the greater their greenhouse gas emissions per pound of beef or milk. And in many parts of the world, cattle grow very slowly, because they're grazing on sparse and poorly maintained pastures. The impact is astounding. Producing a pound of beef in East Africa probably causes a hundred times more global warming than the same product from a feedlot in the United States. The good news, Searchinger says, is that "there are enormous opportunities to improve efficiency" at a very modest cost. Chief among those opportunities: faster-growing, more nutritious grasses like the ones that McCloskey wants to establish in Puerto Rico. Those grasses are part of a botanical family known by the scientific name Brachiaria that came originally from eastern Africa. Researchers at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), based in Colombia, identified specific varieties that are best for cattle grazing. They're helping to distribute them across the tropics. Commercial seed companies are selling the new seeds in Brazil, Mexico and Kenya. According to Michael Peters, who leads CIAT's research on tropical grazing, pastures made up of these grasses can support three times more cattle, compared to typical tropical pastures today. The animals also gain weight twice as quickly. It translates into a six-fold increase in production per acre, and a dramatic cut in greenhouse emissions. "It sounds too good to be true, but we are completely confident about it," Peters says. There are limitations: Farmers need to manage cattle on these pastures to avoid over-grazing, and add a bit of fertilizer every few years. Also, these grasses need plentiful rainfall — at least 35 inches a year, and a rainy season at least six months long. But compared to their impact, the new grasses really don't cost much. "In rice, you need to invest a lot of money to achieve significant reduction" of greenhouse gas emissions, says Jacobo Arango, a researcher at CIAT. "The same in other crops. Livestock is the sector where you can get more reduction for less money." Adding other plants to the mix of pasture vegetation would make it even better, Peters admits. Legumes like beans or clover would enrich the soil. Trees would provide shade. Such pastures do exist in the tropics, and visiting them is "practically a religious experience," says Searchinger. But Peters says that CIAT's efforts to promote them haven't been very successful. Maintaining them takes too much work. Farmers have been more enthusiastic about all-grass pastures. According to Peters, Brazilian farmers have planted the new grasses on more than 200 million acres of grazing land. Arango says that in some places, improving pastures requires farmers to adopt new attitudes toward grazing. "Maybe people don't think of pasture in the tropics as a crop, or something that they need to invest in," he says. Instead, many farmers think of pasture as something natural "that just grows there, and you put your animals there, and you don't have to do anything more." In Puerto Rico, McCloskey isn't really building these pastures as a way to increase production; instead, it's a way to lower costs. Right now, he says, Puerto Rico's dairy farmers don't graze their dairy cattle outside at all, because their Holstein cows, which were bred in temperate climates to produce lots of milk, don't tolerate tropical heat and insect pests. But keeping cows indoors in the tropics, keeping them cool and bringing in feed from farms far away, involves "tremendous costs," McCloskey says. He thinks these new pastures are one part of the solution. The other part is a new genetic strain of dairy cows that scientists in Brazil created. It's the result of mating a Holstein and a "Brahma-type" breed known as Gyr. Each of the new hybrid animals will be created by in-vitro fertilization. "We'll get good productivity and great tropical resistance to heat and parasites and ticks and all the things that have been difficult" for dairy cattle in the tropics, McCloskey says. McCloskey doesn't expect to set up a large-scale dairy in Puerto Rico himself. His project is supposed to show that cattle grazing can work. He's planning to raise heifers on the pasture and sell them to Puerto Rico's existing dairy farmers, along with beef cattle. If it works, he says, the impact could be enormous. "We believe that the right breed, and the right pastures, can really revolutionize how milk can be produced in the tropics," he says. "Not only in Puerto Rico! We're looking at this as a possibility for great changes all through the tropics."

Loading CIAT collaborators
Loading CIAT collaborators