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Gil-Ramirez A.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | Soler-Rivas C.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | Rodriguez-Casado A.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Ruiz-Rodriguez A.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2015

Culinary-medicinal mushrooms are able to lower blood cholesterol levels in animal models by different mechanisms. They might impair the endogenous cholesterol synthesis and exogenous cholesterol absorption during digestion. Mushroom extracts, obtained using pressurized water extractions (PWE) from Agaricus bisporus basidiomes, supplemented or not supplemented with selenium, were applied to HepG2 cell cultures to study the expression of 19 genes related to cholesterol homeostasis by low-density arrays (LDA). Only the PWE fractions obtained at 25°C showed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity. Besides the enzymatic inhibition, PWE extracts may downregulate some of the key genes involved in the cholesterol homeostasis, such as the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1), since its mRNA expression falls by one third of its initial value. In summary, A. bisporus extracts may also modulate biological cholesterol levels by molecular mechanisms further than the enzymatic way previously reported. © 2015 Begell House, Inc.


Gil-Ramirez A.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | Clavijo C.,Centro Tecnologico Of Investigacion Del Champinon Of La Rioja Ctich | Palanisamy M.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | Ruiz-Rodriguez A.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Agaricus bisporus mushrooms were able to lower cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolaemic rats and it was suggested that dietary fibre might inhibit cholesterol absorption. However, A. bisporus extracts were also able to inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR, the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway) and this might also contribute to the observed lowering of cholesterol levels in serum. RESULTS: The methanol-water extracts obtained from A. bisporus were able to inhibit up to 60% the HMGCR activity using an in vitro assay. The HMGCR inhibitory capacities depended on cultivation conditions, strains, etc. The potential inhibitors were not statins, they might be β-glucans able to scavenge the substrate and impair the enzymatic reaction. They were present during all mushroom developmental stages and similarly distributed through all the tissues including the parts discarded as a by-product. Accelerated solvent extractions using 1:1 ethanol-water as pressurised solvent (10.7 MPa, 25°C, five cycles of 5 min) were more effective in the extraction of the HMGCiR inhibitor(s) than supercritical fluid extractions (9 MPa, 40°C) using CO2 with 10% ethanol. CONCLUSION: A mushroom cultivation and two extraction procedures were optimised to obtain fractions from A. bisporus with high HMGCR inhibitory activities to design novel ingredients for hypocholesterolaemic functional foodstuffs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


Gil-Ramirez A.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | Clavijo C.,Centro Tecnologico Of Investigacion Del Champinon Of La Rioja Ctich | Palanisamy M.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | Ruiz-Rodriguez A.,CIAL Research Institute in Food Science UAMCSIC | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

The methanol/water and particularly the water extracts obtained from 26 mushroom species were able to inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) activity to different extent (10-76%). Cultivated mushrooms such as Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula edodes were among the strains which showed higher HMGCR inhibitory capacities. Their inhibitory properties were not largely influenced by cultivation parameters, mushroom developmental stage or flush number. The HMGCR inhibitory activity of L. edodes was concentrated in the cap excluding the gills while in Pleurotus ostreatus it was distributed through all the different tissues. A method to obtain aqueous fractions with high HMGCR inhibitory activity was optimized using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) by selecting 10.7. MPa and 25 °C as common extraction conditions and 5 cycles of 5. min each for P. ostreatus fruiting bodies and 15 cycles of 5. min for L. edodes suggesting that the potential HMGCR inhibitors are different in the two selected mushrooms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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