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Meza-Montenegro M.M.,ITSON | Valenzuela-Quintanar A.I.,CIAD | Balderas-Cortes J.J.,ITSON | Gutierrez-Coronado M.L.,CIAD | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels <5.0 μg Pb/dL. Urinary As levels ranged from 5.4 to 199 μg As/L with an average value of 31.0 μg As/L. Levels > 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Soto Rodriguez S.A.,CIAD | Gomez Gil B.,CIAD | Lozano R.,CIAD
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010

Vibriosis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of cultured shrimp in Mexico; as a result, the Research Centre for Food and Development (CIAD, for the Spanish wording) offers a diagnostic service to the shrimp farmers where they bring samples of diseased shrimp as judged by themselves. Hemolymph (HL) and hepatopancreas (HP) of diseased Litopenaeus vannamei were analyzed from five regions of Northwestern Mexico (from 2001 to 2006) in tiosulphate citrate bile sacharose (TCBS) agar; a total of 5912 shrimp were examined. The results showed a mean vibrios density of 6.45 × 103, SD = 6.90 × 104 CFU/mL for HL and 1.40 × 105, SD = 3.20 × 105 CFU/g for HP (n = 5912). HL samples had 12% (SD = 26%) of green colonies (GCs) in TCBS, and 23% (SD = 34%) of GCs in HP samples. Of the total shrimp analyzed, 46% were not found to possess vibrios in HL, whereas 60% of the shrimp examined contained more than 105 CFU/g of HP. More than 60 and 40% of the shrimp did not have GC in HL and HP, respectively. The highest Pearson coefficient correlation was observed between vibrios HL and GCs in HL for 2006 (r = 0.611, n = 712, P < 0.001). © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

Cantu-Soto E.U.,Institute Technological of Sonora | Meza-Montenegro M.M.,Institute Technological of Sonora | Valenzuela-Quintanar A.I.,CIAD | Felix-Fuentes A.,Institute Technological of Sonora | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Although, the Yaqui and Mayo valleys are the most important agricultural areas in Sonora, there is only limited data of the pesticides residue in soils in these valleys. This study measured the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 234 soil samples (residential and agricultural) from 24 communities. The global results (mean, range) indicated that benzene hexachloride (19.2, ND-938.5 μg g -1), endrin (6.6, ND-377.3 μg g -1) and DDTs (36.45, ND-679.7 μg g -1) were the dominant contaminants. Soil is one of the most important routes of exposure to OCPs in the population of southern Sonora and this study can be used to establish background levels of OCPs. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Frias-Espericueta M.G.,University of the Sea | Cardenas-Nava N.G.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Marquez-Farias J.F.,University of the Sea | Osuna-Lopez J.I.,University of the Sea | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Frias-Espericueta M.G.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Mejia-Cruz R.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Osuna Lopez I.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Muy-Rangel M.D.,CIAD | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

The aim of this work was to survey the discharges of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn of the eight main rivers of Sinaloa State to the Mexican coastal environment. Zn was the most abundant dissolved metal and Fe was the most abundant particulate (8.02-16.90 and 51.8-1,140.3 μg/L, respectively). Only particulate Mn had significantly (p = 0.028) higher values in summer-fall (rainy season), whereas the significantly (p = 0.036) higher values of dissolved Zn were observed in winter and spring. The highest annual total discharges to Sinaloa coastal waters were those of the rivers San Lorenzo and Piaxtla (>2 × 103 m.t.) and the lowest those of rivers Baluarte and El Fuerte (349 and 119 m.t., respectively). Pb concentrations may become of concern, because they are higher than the value recommended for the welfare of aquatic communities of natural waters. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Gibson L.J.,University of Arizona | Pavlakovich-Kochi V.,University of Arizona | Wong-Gonzalez P.,CIAD | Lim J.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Wright B.,University of Arizona
Studies in Regional Science | Year: 2016

In this paper we discuss the Sun Corridor concept and then restate the concept in the context of a transborder economic development. The Morrison Institute at Arizona State University coined the term Sun Corridor to describe developments in Flagstaff, Phoenix, Tucson and Nogales and the interstitial spaces between them. Applying the Morrison Institute’s methodology to the transborder mega-region we identify and describe the sub-regions, realms and nodes together with their internal and external challenges. In evaluating the benefits of the transborder Sun Corridor as a model for binational economic development we draw attention to legacies and lessons of an earlier model of binational crossborder collaboration in economic development known as the Arizona-Sonora Region. Arizona and Sonora have had a long tradition of functional and formal ties, and were among the first border states to strategize crossborder economic development within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) framework in the early 1990s. © JSRSAI 2016.

PubMed | Ciad Mazatlan Unit For Aquaculture Ap 711, Guaymas Unit Quality Assurance and Management of Natural Resources, CIAD, Instituto Nacional Of Pesca and Laboratory Of Microbiologia Sanitaria
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of water and health | Year: 2013

Members of the genus Vibrio are common in aquatic environments. Among them are V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus. Several studies have shown that environmental factors, such as temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, are involved in their epidemiology. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between the presence/amount of V. cholerae, V, vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus and the environmental conditions of the seawater off the coast of Guaymas, Mxico. Quantification of all four pathogenic bacteria was performed using the most probable number method, and suspected colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Correlations were found using principal component analysis. V. parahaemolyticus was the most abundant and widely distributed bacteria, followed by V. vulnificus, V. mimicus and V. cholerae. Positive correlations between V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus with temperature, salinity, electric conductivity, and total dissolved solids were found. The abundance of V. cholerae was mainly affected by the sampling site and not by physicochemical parameters.

Abdo-de la Parra M.I.,CIAD | Garcia-Ortega A.,CIAD | Martinez-Rodriguez I.,CIAD | Gonzalez-Rodriguez B.,CIAD | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2010

In this study bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus larvae were reared from hatching through to 1 or 2 months after weaning on an experimental scale in three replicate 600 L tanks and on three occasions during the spawning season (nine tanks in total). The rearing protocol used was green water (Nannochloropsis oculata and Isochrysis sp.) 100 000 cells mL-1 from 0 to 11 days after hatch (DAH), 5-10 rotifers, Brachionus rotundiformis mL-1 from 2 to 26 DAH, 0.1-1 Artemia mL-1 from 21 to 34 DAH and weaning from 29 to 34 DAH. Survival to a month after weaning was 1%, a total of 3153 juveniles were produced with an average wet weight of 0.29 ± 0.07 g and a length of 27.5 ± 0.82 mm. © 2010 Blackwell Munksgaard. No claim to original US government works.

Guerrero A.,CICESE | Gomez Gil Rodriguez B.,CIAD | Wong-Chang I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Lizarraga-Partida M.L.,CICESE
International Journal of Environmental Health Research | Year: 2015

Vibrio vulnificus strains were isolated from oysters that were collected at the main seafood market in Mexico City. Strains were characterized with regard to vvhA, vcg genotype, PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and rtxA1. Analyses included a comparison with rtxA1 reference sequences. Environmental (vcgE) and clinical (vcgC) genotypes were isolated at nearly equal percentages. PFGE had high heterogeneity, but the strains clustered by vcgE or vcgC genotype. Select housekeeping genes for MLST and primers that were designed for rtxA1 domains divided the strains into two clusters according to the E or C genotype. Reference rtxA1 sequences and those from this study were also clustered according to genotype. These results confirm that this genetic dimorphism is not limited to vcg genotyping, as other studies have reported. Some environmental C genotype strains had high similarity to reference strains, which have been reported to be virulent, indicating a potential risk for oyster consumers in Mexico City. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

PubMed | CIAD and University of Sonora
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

A sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Navicula sp. presented a yield of 4.4 (% w/w dry biomass basis). Analysis of the polysaccharide using gas chromatography showed that this polysaccharide contained glucose (29%), galactose (21%), rhamnose (10%), xylose (5%) and mannose (4%). This polysaccharide presented an average molecular weight of 107 kDa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the lyophilized Navicula sp. polysaccharide is an amorphous solid with particles of irregular shapes and sharp angles. The polysaccharide at 1% (w/v) solution in water formed gels in the presence of 0.4% (w/v) FeCl, showing elastic and viscous moduli of 1 and 0.7 Pa, respectively. SEM analysis performed on the lyophilized gel showed a compact pore structure, with a pore size of approximately 150 nm. Very few studies on the gelation of sulfated polysaccharides using trivalent ions exist in the literature, and, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the gelation of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Navicula sp.

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