ChungChou Institute of Technology

Yuanlin, Taiwan

ChungChou Institute of Technology

Yuanlin, Taiwan

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Tsou M.-J.,Chungchou Institute of Technology | Kao F.-J.,Ming Chun University | Tseng C.-K.,Tunghai University | Chiang W.-D.,Tunghai University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Limited hydrolysis of soy protein isolate (SPI) with Flavourzyme for 2 h to obtain the hydrolysate (FH2h) revealed much higher suppression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and relative lipid accumulation (RLA) than intact SPI in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes during differentiation. Lower GPDH activity or RLA indicates higher anti-adipogenic activity. The GPDH significantly decreased from 673 to 477 U/mg protein (p < 0.05). Sequentially fractionating FH2h with 30-1 kDa (kilo-daltons) molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes to obtain the 1 kDa permeate resulted in further reduction of 59% GPDH activity. When comparing the high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) profiles, the most active peptide fraction for the anti-adipogenic activity was primarily composed of small peptides with molecular weight less than 1300 Da. According to the Western immunoblot analysis, 1 kDa permeate inhibits adipogenesis by affecting the expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) during 3T3-L1 cells differentiation. © 2010.


Kao F.J.,Ming Chuan University | Chiu Y.S.,Tunghai University | Tsou M.J.,Chungchou Institute of Technology | Chiang W.D.,Tunghai University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene, common in many vegetables, have been shown to be important in visual health-promoting. However, cooking practice has a great impact on these bioactive compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three common Chinese domestic cooking methods including boiling, stir-frying, and deep-frying on the composition of lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and their trans/. cis (E/Z) isomers of vegetables. Among the 25 fresh vegetables commonly consumed in Taiwan, it was found that cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum contained the 1st-4th highest amount of total carotenoids content (TCC), respectively. Boiling preserved the majority of carotenoids, whereas stir-frying and deep-frying significantly decreased TCC and (all- E)-forms of carotenoids. In addition, (all- E) - and (13. Z)-/(13'. Z)-carotenoids exhibited similar trends during boiling, since the boiling time required to reach maximum concentration for (all- E)-carotenoids was almost the same as that for (13. Z) - plus (13'. Z)-isomers. An overall increase of (9. Z)/(9'. Z)-carotenoid isomers was observed in all boiled vegetables, probably because of E/Z isomerization, which could partially result in the formation of more bioactive compounds such as (9. Z)- β-carotene. Boiling may be the preferred practice of domestic cooking methods to preserve carotenoids in vegetables. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang N.-C.,Chungchou Institute of Technology | Lee C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Song T.-Y.,Chungchou Institute of Technology
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Polyphenols can oxidize in culture medium and produce artifacts in cell culture studies. However, the extent and mechanism of the oxidation of resveratrol, a polyphenol abundant in red wine, is unclear. We investigated the oxidation of resveratrol in vitro and the effects of various components of the culture medium on the degradation of resveratrol and the production of H 2O2. We found that 96% of resveratrol at a concentration of 200 μM was degraded in Base Modified Eagle Medium after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C, producing about 90 μm of H2O2. Including sodium bicarbonate in the medium markedly stimulated resveratrol degradation and H2O2 production. In sum, we found that bicarbonate ions played a crucial role in the oxidative degradation of resveratrol in vitro, and that the degradation of resveratrol can be avoided by withdrawing sodium bicarbonate from the medium. A mechanism for the oxidation of resveratrol is proposed.


Chen C.-C.,ChungChou Institute of Technology
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2011

Binder removal is a crucial step to obtain high quality compacts in powder injection molding process. In this study, a two-dimensional wick-debinding model was developed on the basis of Darcy's law and numerically solved by the body-fitted finite element method. A statistical model relates debinding time to designed effective factors, such as compact thickness, powder diameter, and fractional packing density, and it is also built by response surface methodology. Results show that the most significant factor on debinding time is the compact thickness, followed by compact powder diameter, compact packing density, and wick powder diameter. However, the effect of wick packing density on debinding time is not significant. Meanwhile, the total percentage of the predicted values is within 1% tolerance corresponding to the experimental values. This indicates that the proposed model looks reasonably accurate. Based on the desirability function approach, the minimum debinding time is about 68 seconds, corresponding to the optimal combinations of compact thickness, compact powder diameter, wick powder diameter, compact packing density, and wick packing density, 1.9mm, 11.3m, 0.68m, 0.50 and 0.32, respectively. Through the confirmation experiments, the difference of optimal debinding time between the predicted value and the experimental data is about 1.5%. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Chiu M.C.,Chungchou Institute of Technology
Journal of Marine Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Shape optimization on mufflers within a limited space is essential for industry where the equipment layout is occasionally tight and the available space for a muffler is limited for maintenance and operation purposes. To proficiently enhance the acoustical performance within a constrained space, the selection of an appropriate acoustical mechanism and optimizer becomes crucial. A one-chamber muffler hybridized with reverse-flow ducts which can visibly increase the acoustical performance is rarely addressed; therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to numerically analyze and maximize the acoustical performance of this muffler within a limited space. In this paper, the four-pole system matrix for evaluating the acoustic performance -sound transmission loss (STL) -is derived by using a decoupled numerical method. Moreover, a genetic algorithm (GA), a robust scheme used to search for the global optimum by imitating the genetic evolutionary process, has been used during the optimization process. Before dealing with a broadband noise, the STL's maximization with respect to a one-tone noise is introduced for a reliability check on the GA method. Moreover, the accuracy check of the mathematical model is performed. The optimal result in eliminating broadband noise reveals that the one-chamber muffler with reverse-flow perforated ducts is excellent for noise reduction. Consequently, the approach used for the optimal design of the noise elimination proposed in this study is easy and effective.


Chiu M.-C.,ChungChou Institute of Technology
Journal of Marine Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In order to overcome the noise impact emitted from a multi-noise plant, a sound barrier, a popular noise control strategy, has been used in the industrial field for a long time. However, the traditional method in the design of a sound barrier is time-consuming and expensive. To improve acoustical performance efficiently, interest in shape optimization of a four-segment sound barrier in conjunction with optimal equipment allocation around the plant's boundary is rising. In this paper, the novel technique of the genetic algorithm (GA) in conjunction with the theoretical sound propagation model and the method of minimized variation square are applied in the following numerical optimizations. Before a sound barrier is optimized, the sound propagation from one single noise is tested and compared with the experimental data for the purpose of accuracy within the mathematical model. Moreover, three kinds of noise-monitoring system (four-point, twelve-point, and twenty-eight-point) around the plant boundary have been adopted for verifying the deviation of the SPL between the simulated SPL and the specified target SPL. The results reveal that the both the sound barrier and the equipment can be properly shaped and allocated. Moreover, the more monitoring points used in the shape optimization of the sound barrier will result in a smaller area of the sound-barrier. Consequently, this paper may provide an efficient and rapid methodology in the noise minimization of a multi-equipment plant.


Chiu M.-C.,ChungChou Institute of Technology
Journal of Marine Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Research on new techniques of multi-chamber mufflers equipped with a side inlet and an internal non-perforated tube has been well addressed and developed; however, the research work of multi-chamber mufflers in conjunction with side inlet and internal perforated tubes which may efficiently increase the acoustical performance is rare. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to not only analyze the sound transmission loss (STL) of three-chamber side mufflers with a perforated tube but also to optimize their best design shape under a limited space. In this paper, both the generalized decoupling technique and plane wave theory in solving the coupled acoustical problem are used. The four-pole system matrix in evaluating the acoustic performance is also deduced in conjunction with a simulated algorithm (SA). To verify the liability of the SA technique, the noise minimization of muffles at a targeted frequency is exemplified first. To appreciate the acoustical performance of various multi-chamber mufflers with/without inner perforated tube, three kinds of multi-chamber mufflers -a one-chamber side muffler, a two-chamber side muffler hybridized with a non-perforated tube, and a three-chamber side muffler hybridized with a perforated tube are introduced and assessed. In eliminating the broadband exhausted noise emitted from an air compressor's inlet. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracies of the mathematical models have to be checked by experimental data. The result reveals a three-chamber side muffler hybridized with a perforated tube exhibits an excellent acoustical ability beyond the other mufflers. Consequently, the approach used seeking the optimal design of the STL proposed in this study is indeed easy, economical and quite effective.


Chiu M.-C.,Chungchou Institute of Technology
Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2010

Because of the necessity of maintenance and operation in industries in which the equipment layout is occasionally tight, the space for a muffler is constrained. An interest in maximizing the acoustical performance of mufflers within a limited space is of paramount importance. As mufflers hybridized with reverse-flow ducts may visibly increase acoustical performance, the main purpose of this paper is to numerically analyze and maximize their acoustical performance within a limited space. In this paper, a four-pole system matrix for evaluating the acoustic performance -sound transmission loss (STL)- is derived by using a decoupled numerical method.Moreover, simulated annealing (SA), a robust scheme used to search for the global optimum by imitating the metal annealing process, has been used during the optimization process. Before dealing with a broadband noise, the STL's maximization with respect to a one-tone noise (300 Hz) is introduced for a reliability check on the SA method. Moreover, an accuracy check of the mathematical model is performed. Results reveal that the STL of a muffler with reverse-flow perforated ducts can be maximized at the desired frequency for pure tone elimination; moreover, the noise reduction for a broadband noise can reach 97.5 dB. Consequently, the approach used for the optimal design of the mufflers is simple and effective.


Chen C.-C.,ChungChou Institute of Technology
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2010

In this study, the filling process of fluid flow through microchannels is investigated. The flow region is fully arranged with obstacles such as bumps. A systematic approach, called response surface methodology (RSM), has been adopted to effectively develop a statistical model relating the filling time to the effectively designed parameters such as bump diameter, bump pitch and bump height. The filling process is conducted under the action of capillary force only. Results show that the most influential factor on the filling time of microchannel flow is the bump height, followed by the bump pitch and bump diameter. Besides, the filling time increases significantly as the flow front of fluids advanced from the inlet. Moreover, the values obtained from the proposed model also show good agreement with those of simulated experiments. Meanwhile, the total error of filling time between the predictive values and experiments is less than 0.2%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen C.-C.,ChungChou Institute of Technology
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

The dispensing pattern of fluids along the periphery of two parallel plates with full micro channels plays an important role for an effective underfilling process. In this paper, a capillary-driven flow model was used to examine the effect of different dispensing patterns such as U-type and L-type on the filling time. A response surface modeling (RSM)-based D-optimal design is employed to construct statistical models relating filling time and designed effective parameters known as bump diameter, bump height and clearance between each bump. The experimental plan consists of a four-factor's (three numerical plus one categorical) matrix. The results show that the U-type dispensing pattern has significant effect on the reduction of filling time than that done at the L-pattern condition. Besides, bump height is the most influential factor on the filling time in both dispensing patterns. Meanwhile, the variations of filling time are compared between the raw data and the values obtained from RS models and have good agreement to each other. Through the desirability function approach, the optimal combination of effective factors is also determined for the U-type pattern and the values of bump height, diameter and clearance are 172μm, 146μm and 120μm, respectively. Finally, the improvement of filling time is around 18.3%. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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