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Lee Y.-P.,Chung Shang Medical University | Lee Y.-P.,Chung Shang Medical University Hospital | Wang C.-W.,Changhua Christian Hospital | Liao W.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012

Aim: The study of the anticancer effects of destruxin B (DB) is rare and its anticancer mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of DB, on human HT-29 colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods: DB was isolated and characterized by high pressure liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and 1H- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess the effects of DB on HT-29 cells in vitro. The anticancer effects of DB were investigated in a murine xenograft model of human colon cancer. Results: A significant inhibition of cell viability was observed with DB treatment in time- and dose-dependent manners. DB administered subcutaneously daily at 0.6-15 mg/kg was proven to be safe and effective in inhibiting the growth of CRC cells. Expression of Bax, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and active caspase-3 were observed with DB treatment and the increase in tumor volumes of treated groups were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of the mock-treated group. Conclusion: DB has potential as a new therapeutic agent against human CRC.


Wu W.-C.,Kainan University | Luu S.,Dalhousie University | Luh D.-L.,Chung Shang Medical University | Luh D.-L.,Chung Shan Medical University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2016

Background: Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Methods: Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety), and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13-15 years old.) from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Results: Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. Conclusions: The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital and Chung Shang Medical University
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion potential have been considered as essential factors in cancer metastasis, which is the major cause of cancer death. EMT is a multi-step process that involves gain invasion, cytoskeleton change, cell adhesion, and proteolytic extracellular matrix degradation. Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), which is a natural polyphenolic component of green tea, elicits several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of ECG on cancer invasion and EMT of human lung carcinoma remain unknown. We provided molecular evidence supporting the anti-metastatic effect of ECG. This compound suppressed the invasion (P<0.001) of highly metastatic A549cells by reducing the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (P<0.001) and urokinasetype plasminogen activator (P<0.001). ECG also reversed the transforming growth factor (TGF)-1-induced EMT and upregulated epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin. Conversely, ECG inhibited mesenchymal markers, such as fibronectin and p-FAK. The subcutaneous inoculation of this compound also inhibited the tumor growth of the A549cells invivo. Therefore, ECG may be used as an anti-cancer and anti-invasion agent for the adjuvant treatment and metastasis control of human lung cancer cells. ECG may also be administered as an effective chemopreventive agent against TGF-1-induced EMT.


PubMed | Kainan University, Dalhousie University and Chung Shang Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2016

Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders.Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety), and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13-15 years old.) from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models.Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies.The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.


Lien Y.-J.,National Taiwan Normal University | Lien Y.-J.,National Taiwan University | Ku H.-Y.,A-Life Medical | Ku H.-Y.,National Health Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2015

Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age.Methods: A total of 122 mother-child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regres-sion models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders.Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (β = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (β = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (β = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges.Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. © 2014, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.


Chen F.-L.,Chung Shang Medical University | Chen F.-L.,Chung Shan Medical University | Horng T.-L.,Feng Chia University | Shih T.-C.,Chung Shang Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the three-dimensional airflow in the trachea before and after the vascular ring surgery (VRS). The simulation was based on CT-scan images of the patients with the vascular ring diseases. The surface geometry of the tracheal airway was reconstructed using triangular mesh by the Amira software package. The unstructured tetrahedral volume meshes were generated by the ANSYS ICEM CFD software package. The airflow in the tracheal airway was solved by the ESI CFD-ACE+ software package. Numerical simulation shows that the pressure drops across the tracheal stenosis before and after the surgery were 0.1789 and 0.0967 Pa, respectively, with the inspiratory inlet velocity 0.1 m/s. Meanwhile, the improvement percentage by the surgery was 45.95%. In the expiratory phase, by contrast, the improvement percentage was 40.65%. When the inspiratory velocity reached 1 m/s, the pressure drop became 4.988~Pa and the improvement percentage was 43.32%. Simulation results further show that after treatment the pressure drop in the tracheal airway was significantly decreased, especially for low inspiratory and expiratory velocities. The CFD method can be applied to quantify the airway pressure alteration and to evaluate the treatment outcome of the vascular ring surgery under different respiratory velocities. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors.


Chien S.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Su P.-H.,Chung Shan Medical University | Chen S.-J.,Chung Shang Medical University Hospital | Chen S.-J.,Chung Shang Medical University
Journal of Genetic Counseling | Year: 2013

Taiwan is an emerging industrial country in subtropical Asia with a population of 23 million. There were around 200,000 newborns in 2011. Delayed first marriage, low birth rate, and rapid aging are major demographic issues. Genetic counseling services were established following the rapid introduction of genetic technology and enactment of relevant laws and regulations. Ultrasound was first used in 1968 to examine pregnant women. The first amniotic fluid laboratory was founded in 1981 to identify chromosomal abnormalities. In 1984, the Genetic Health Act was legislated for prevention and control of genetic disorders, and the metabolic disorder screen project was launched. National Health Insurance with overall coverage of prenatal examinations was established in 1995. A master-level genetic counseling program was launched in 2003 and by 2011 has graduated eighty students. Two professional societies have been formed to certify genetic counselors, and 66 professionals have been certified. In summary, genetic counseling services in Taiwan are continuously improving. © 2013 National Society of Genetic Counselors, Inc.


Tseng C.-J.,Chung Shang Medical University Hospital | Tseng C.-J.,Chung Shang Medical University | Shen H.-P.,Chung Shang Medical University Hospital | Shen H.-P.,Chung Shang Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

Objective: Surgical therapy for cervical carcinoma carries a significant risk of functional impairment to the bladder. This study evaluates the feasibility and complications of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NRH) in Taiwan. Methods: Between March 2010 and March 2011, consecutive patients diagnosed with early stage cervical cancer (FIGO stage Ia2 to Ib1) and tumor size < 3 cm were recruited prospectively to undergo NRH or conventional radical hysterectomy (RH). Patients with histories of urinary stress incontinence or bladder dysfunction disease were excluded. A modified Tokyo nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy was performed. Results: A total of 30 patients were enrolled. Among these, 18 patients underwent NRH with successful bilaterally nerve-sparing procedures in 15 cases (83%), unilaterally nerve-sparing procedures in 2 cases (11%), and a failure in 1 case (6%). The indwelling catheter was removed on postoperative day 6. The mean. ±. SD duration from operation to spontaneous voiding was 6.8. ±. 1.5 days for women who underwent NRH; the corresponding duration for women who underwent RH or failed NRH was 20.6. ±. 3 days. None of the patients who underwent NRH required intermittent catheterization. All 12 patients who underwent RH needed self-catheterization after discharge. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of postoperative self-catheterization (. p<. 0.01) and bladder dysfunction (. p<. 0.006). Average satisfaction score analyzed by the Likert-scale questionnaire was 4.5 for the NRH group and 1.9 for RH group (. p<. 0.0001). Conclusions: We concluded that the new technique of NRH can reduce postoperative bladder dysfunctions. © 2012 .


PubMed | Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University and Chung Shang Medical University
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

Many natural flavonoids have cytostatic and apoptotic properties; however, we little know whether the effect of synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone on metastasis and tumor growth of human osteosarcoma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 3-hydroxyflavone suppresses human osteosarcoma cells metastasis and tumor growth. 3-hydroxyflavone, up to 50M without cytotoxicity, inhibited U2OS and 143B cells motility, invasiveness and migration by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and also impaired cell adhesion to gelatin. 3-hydroxyflavone significantly reduced p-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) Tyr397, p-FAK Tyr925, p-steroid receptor coactivator (Src), p-mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)1/2, p-myosin light chain (MLC)2 Ser19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Ras homolog gene family (Rho)A and fibronectin expressions. 3-hydroxyflavone also affected the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by down-regulating expressions of Vimentin and -catenin with activation of the transcription factor Slug. In nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that 3-hydroxyflavone reduced 143B tumor growth and lung metastasis. 3-hydroxyflavone possesses the anti-metastatic activity of U2OS and 143B cells by affecting EMT and repressing u-PA/MMP-2 via FAK-Src to MEK/ERK and RhoA/MLC2 pathways and suppresses 143B tumor growth invivo. This may lead to clinical trials of osteosarcoma chemotherapy to confirm the promising result in the future.


PubMed | Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital and Chung Shang Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition and cancer | Year: 2016

Autophagy is a self-destructive process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents. In our previous study, Koelreuteria formosana ethanolic extract (KFEE), which is obtained from natural plants endemic to Taiwan, has inhibited cell metastasis in renal carcinoma cells. However, the anticancer effects of KFEE on colon cancer remain unclear. In this study, KFEE exerted a strong cytotoxic effect on DLD-1 and COLO 205 human colorectal cancer cell lines. KFEE effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, induced G2/M-phase arrest associated with downregulaton of cyclin E, cyclin B and cdc25C and upregulation of p21, and induced cell death by activating autophagy but did not cause apoptotic cell death. Exposed KFEE cells showed increased levels of acridine orange, autophagic vacuoles, and LC3-II proteins, which are specific autophagic markers. Bcl-2, p-Akt, and p-mTOR levels, which have been implicated in autophagic downregulation, were decreased after KFEE treatment. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and bafilomycin-A1 and genetic silencing of LC3 attenuated KFEE-induced growth inhibition. These findings suggested that KFEE causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. In xenograft studies, oral administration of KFEE had significantly inhibited the tumor growth in nude mice that had received subcutaneous injection of DLD-1 cells. KFEE is a promising candidate in phytochemical-based, mechanistic, and pathway-targeted cancer prevention strategies.

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