Wang H.C.,Chung Shan Medical University
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2010
Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma.
Huang C.F.,Chung Shan Medical University
Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2010
Cellular density is a major factor for change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The authors hypothesized that loss of tumor cells after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) may alter the ADC value and used diffusion weighted MR imaging (DW imaging) to evaluate cellular changes in brain tumors to detect their treatment response and the efficacy of GKS. In this paper the authors describe a prospective trial involving 86 patients harboring 38 solid or predominantly solid brain metastases, 30 meningiomas, and 24 acoustic neuromas that were treated by GKS. The patients underwent serial MR imaging examinations, including DW imaging, before treatment and at multiple intervals following GKS. Follow-up MR images and clinical outcomes were reviewed at 3-month intervals for metastatic lesions and at 6-month intervals for benign tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficients were calculated from echo planar DW images, and mean ADC values were compared at each follow-up. The mean ADC value for all meningiomas was 0.82 ± 0.15 × 10-3 mm2/sec before GKS. The mean ADC value as of the last mean follow-up of 42 months was 1.36 ± 0.19 × 10-3 mm2/sec, a significant increase compared to that before treatment (p < 0.0001). Calcification (p = 0.006) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.025) significantly prevented a rise in the ADC level.The mean ADC value for all solid acoustic neuromas was 1.06 ± 0.17 × 10-3 mm2/sec before GKS. The mean ADC value as of the last mean follow-up of 36 months was 1.72 ± 0.26 × 10-3 mm2/sec, a significant increase (p =0.0002) compared with values before GKS. At the last mean MR imaging follow-up there appeared to be tumor enlargement in 3 patients (12.5%); however, since the ADC values in these patients were significantly higher than the preradiosurgery values, the finding was considered to be a sign of radiation necrosis rather than tumor recurrence. The mean ADC value of metastatic tumors was 1.05 ± 0.12 × 10-3 mm2/sec before GKS. This value rose significantly(p < 0.0001) to 1.64 ± 0.18 × 10-3 mm2/sec after GKS at a mean follow-up of 9.4 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that 89% of these tumors had been controlled by GKS. In 2 patients there were enlarged lesions, but the ADC values were the same as pre-GKS levels, and therefore, the lesions were deemed recurrent. Apparent diffusion coefficient values may be useful in evaluating treatment results before a definitive change in volume is evident on imaging studies. In some patients in whom imaging findings are equivocal, ADC values may also be used to distinguish radiation-induced necrosis from tumor recurrence.(DOI: 10.3171/2010.7.GKS10864)
Huang C.F.,Chung Shan Medical University
Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2010
The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) as a second treatment for recurrent or residual trigeminal neuralgia (TN) after failure of 3 initial procedures: microvascular decompression (MVD), GKS, and percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy (PRR). Between 1999 and 2008, 65 patients (31 men [48%] and 34 women [52%]) with recurrent TN were treated with GKS. All 65 patients had undergone previous medical procedures that failed to achieve sufficient pain relief: 27 patients (42%) had undergone MVD, 8 (12%) had undergone PRR, and 30 (46%) had undergone GKS as the initial treatment. The entry zone of the trigeminal nerve was targeted using a 4-mm collimator and treated with 35-90 Gy. The isocenter was positioned so that the brainstem surface was usually irradiated at an isodose no greater than 20% (59 patients) to 30% (6 patients). The median duration of TN symptoms in these patients was 39 months (range 1-192 months). At the clinical evaluation, 42 patients (65%) with idiopathic TN reported successful pain control at a median follow-up point of 64 months (range 18-132 months). Of these patients, 33 (51%) were no longer using medication. At the 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up examinations, 74%, 71%, and 66% of patients experienced successful pain control, respectively. There was no significant difference in pain relief in the initial MVD group compared with the initial GKS and initial PRR groups (74% vs 59% and 50%, respectively; p = 0.342). Recurrence of pain was noted in 23 patients. Twelve of these 23 patients underwent another GKS, resulting in pain control in 8 patients (67%); 8 other patients underwent MVD, resulting in pain relief in 7 patients (87.5%). The median time from GKS to pain recurrence was 7 months (range 3-48 months). There was no significant difference in new facial numbness among the 3 groups (p = 0.24); however, in the initial GKS group, facial numbness was significantly associated with freedom from pain (p = 0.0012). There was a significant correlation between the total radiation dose and facial numbness. The cutoff value for facial numbness ranged from 115 to 120 Gy (p = 0.037). Gamma Knife surgery as a second treatment achieved acceptable levels of pain control in 65% of patients with residual or recurrent TN after long-term follow-up. Initial treatment was not a factor that affected pain control, but salvage surgery may be considered separately for each group.
Li Y.H.,Chung Shan Medical University
Health policy and planning | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVES: In order to make tuberculosis (TB) treatment more effective and to lower the transmission rate of the disease, the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) in Taiwan implemented the 'Pay-for-Performance on Tuberculosis' programme (P4P on TB) in 2004. This study investigates the effectiveness of the P4P system in terms of cure rate and length of treatment. METHODS: This retrospective study obtained information on all TB cases in the national data sets of Taiwan for the years 2002 to 2005. The number of cases in pre-P4P years (2002 and 2003) was 25 754, compared with 33 536 in the post-P4P implementation years (2004 and 2005). The effectiveness of the programme was evaluated by comparing the TB cure rate and length of treatment before and after the implementation of the P4P programme, and between participating and non-participating hospitals. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the factors affecting TB patients' cure rate within a 12-month treatment period. FINDINGS: The cure rate and the average length of treatment before the implementation of P4P were 46.9% and 256.24 days, respectively, compared with 63.0% and 249.74 days after implementation of P4P. The cure rate and length of treatment in P4P hospitals were 68.1% and 249.13 days, respectively, compared with 42.4% and 53.71 days in non-P4P hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that both the cure rate and average length of treatment for cured cases improved significantly after the implementation of the P4P on TB programme in Taiwan. Compared with non-P4P hospitals, P4P hospitals had significantly better treatment outcomes. Patients' age, income level, the physician density of a patient's place of residence, and whether the hospital has joined the P4P on TB programme are factors affecting the treatment outcomes of TB patients in Taiwan.
Chang Y.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014
In 1886, Senn stated that removing necrotic pancreatic and peripancreatic tissue would benefit patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Since then, necrosectomy has been a mainstay of surgical procedures for infected necrotizing pancreatitis (NP). No published report has successfully questioned the role of necrosectomy. Recently, however, increasing evidence shows good outcomes when treating walled-off necrotizing pancreatitis without a necrosectomy. The literature concerning NP published primarily after 2000 was reviewed; it demonstrates the feasibility of a paradigm shift. The majority (75%) of minimally invasive necrosectomies show higher completion rates: between 80% and 100%. Transluminal endoscopic necrosectomy has shown remarkable results when combined with percutaneous drainage or a metallic stent. Related morbidities range from 40% to 92%. Single-digit mortality rates have been achieved with transluminal endoscopic necrosectomy, but not with video-assisted retroperitoneal necrosectomy series. Drainage procedures without necrosectomy have evolved from percutaneous drainage to transluminal endoscopic drainage with or without percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy access for laparoscopic instruments. Most series have reached higher success rates of 79%-93%, and even 100%, using transcystic multiple drainage methods. It is becoming evident that transluminal endoscopic drainage treatment of walledoff NP without a necrosectomy is feasible. With further refinement of the drainage procedures, a paradigm shift from necrosectomy to drainage is inevitable. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.