Sonaje K.,National Tsing Hua University |
Chen Y.-J.,National Tsing Hua University |
Chen H.-L.,National Tsing Hua University |
Wey S.-P.,Chang Gung University |
And 6 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2010
A pH-sensitive nanoparticle (NP) system composed of chitosan and poly(γ-glutamic acid) was prepared for the oral delivery of insulin. The biodistribution study in a rat model showed that some of the orally administered NPs were retained in the stomach for a long duration, which might lead to the disintegration of NPs and degradation of insulin. To overcome these problems, we freeze-dried NPs and filled them in an enteric-coated capsule. The small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles indicated that the freeze-drying process did not significantly disrupt the internal structure of NPs; additionally, their pH-sensitivity was preserved and the insulin release was pH-dependent. The results obtained in the native PAGE analysis indicated that the released insulin molecules were neither fragmented nor aggregated. Upon oral administration, the enteric-coated capsule remained intact in the acidic environment of the stomach, but dissolved rapidly in the proximal segment of the small intestine. Consequently, all the NPs loaded in the capsule were brought into the small intestine, thus enhancing the intestinal absorption of insulin and providing a prolonged reduction in blood glucose levels. The relative bioavailability of insulin was found to be approximately 20%. These results suggest that the formulation developed in the study might be employed as a potential approach for the oral delivery of insulin. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Kaohsiung Medical University, Chung Gung University, Taipei Medical University and Wan Fang Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of child health care : for professionals working with children in the hospital and community | Year: 2016
Glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) are both considered indicators of health adaptation among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The purpose of this study was to construct a path model addressing the influences of individual characteristics, school support, resilience, and self-care behaviors on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and QoL among adolescents with T1D in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional design study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on individual characteristics, school support, resilience, self-care behaviors, and QoL. The latest HbA1c was collected from medical records. Data from 238 adolescents with T1D were analyzed using structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized path model. The findings indicated that self-care behaviors and resilience both directly influenced HbA1c and QoL. School support directly influenced QoL but indirectly influenced HbA1c. We suggest that improving self-care behaviors and resilience could be considered an appropriate intervention for enhancing the health adaptation of adolescents with T1D. Increasing school support might be a strategy to improve QoL among adolescents with T1D.
PubMed | Taiwan Alzheimers Disease Association, En Chu Kong Hospital, Chung Gung University, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Taiwan University Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Evidence of an association between lifestyle and marital status and risk of dementia is limited in Asia.In this nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey, participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 counties in Taiwan. A total of 10432 residents were assessed by a door-to-door in-person survey, among whom 7035 were normal and 929 were diagnosed with dementia using the criteria recommended by National Institute on Aging-Alzheimers Association. Premorbid lifestyle habits and demographic data including marital status were compared between normal subjects and participants with dementia.After adjustment for age, gender, education, body mass index, smoking, drinking, marital status, sleep habits, exercise, social engagement and co-morbidities including hypertension, diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases, an increased risk for dementia was found in people with widow or widower status (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.77) and people who used to take a nap in the afternoon (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.72). Decreased risk was found in people with the habit of regular exercise (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.09-0.16), adequate night sleep (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.76) and regular social engagement (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36-0.77).Our results provide preliminary evidence of possible risk-reduction effects for dementia, including regular exercise even in modest amounts, social engagement and adequate night sleep, whereas people with the widow/widower status or who used to take an afternoon nap might have increased risk of dementia.
PubMed | Taipei Medical University, Chung Gung University and National Yang Ming University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2015
Cognitive function impairments and depressive symptoms are common in elderly people with dementia. Previous meta-analyses of outdated and small-scale studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by including more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with large sample sizes to investigate the immediate and long-term (6-10 months) effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia.Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Chinese databases were searched to select eligible articles. Primary outcome measures included the scores of cognitive functions and depressive symptoms. In total, 12 RCT studies investigating the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data. All analyses were performed using a random-effects model.Reminiscence therapy had a small-size effect on cognitive functions (g = 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.30) and a moderate-size effect on depressive symptoms (g = -0.49, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.28) in elderly people with dementia. Long-term effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms were not confirmed. Moderator analysis revealed that institutionalized elderly people with dementia exhibited greater improvement in depressive symptoms than community-dwelling people with dementia did (g = -0.59 vs. -0.16, P = .003).This meta-analysis confirms that reminiscence therapy is effective in improving cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Our findings suggest that regular reminiscence therapy should be considered for inclusion as routine care for the improvement of cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia, particularly in institutionalized residents with dementia.
Dahiya D.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center |
Wu T.-J.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center |
Wu T.-J.,Chung Gung University |
Lee C.-F.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center |
And 3 more authors.
Surgery | Year: 2010
Background: The choice between minor versus major resection or anatomic versus nonantatomic resection for small (<5 cm) solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis is controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after minor or major hepatic resection for small solitary HCC in cirrhotic patients. Methods: Between January 1983 and December 2002, patients with solitary HCC of ≤5 cm in size who had histologically proven liver cirrhosis and microscopically tumor-free margin were included. These selected patients underwent either minor (≤2 segments) or major (≥3 segments) hepatectomy. Results: In 373 patients, 259 underwent minor and 114 underwent major hepatectomy. Patients in the minor resection group had more severe underlying liver disease (P = .005). Therefore, only 29.3% received anatomic resection in the minor resection group in comparison with 72.8% in the major hepatectomy group (P = .0001). No difference was found in postoperative morbidity (P = .105), mortality (P =.222), intrahepatic recurrence (P = .742), and 5-year DFS and OS (31.6% vs 31.8%, P = .932 and 50.7% vs 44.0%, P = .114) in both groups. The type of operative resection was not found to be a significant factor affecting survival in univariate analysis, but the preoperative liver function (alanine aminotransferase [AST] or alanine aminotransferase [ALT], serum albumin, or Child-Pugh status), tumor characteristics (alpha-feto protein, size, and presence of daughter nodules), and blood transfusion were found to be independent factors that affect the DFS and OS in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The severity of cirrhosis and tumor characteristics depicts long-term survival rather than the type of resection in HCC. Crown Copyright © 2010.
Yeh B.-C.,Chung Gung University
2013 Joint Conference of International Conference on Computational Problem-Solving and International High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum, ICCP and HSIC 2013 | Year: 2013
We propose one-dimensional Multi-Method codes (1-D MM codes) in spectral amplitude coding (SAC) optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks. The mathematical results and simulation analysis show that the MM codes in terms of the bit-error-rate (BER). The numerical results demonstrate that the 1-D MM codes outperform the existing 1-D approaches in terms of BER, and the data transmission rate can achieve 2.5 Gbps. © 2013 IEEE.
Yeh B.-C.,Chung Gung University |
Lin C.-H.,Chung Gung University |
Yang D.-N.,Chung Gung University
Optical Engineering | Year: 2014
We propose a new code family, called extended shifted prime codes, and the universal encoding architecture for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems using a two-code keying scheme. The proposed system can eliminate multiuser interference and suppress phase-induced intensity noise. In addition, we design the ESP codes to be an encoding/decoding architecture based on the array waveguide grating architecture and reduce the power loss and the complexity of the optical line terminal. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed system with ESPcodes outperforms the existing onedimensional shifted prime codes system. © 2014 The Authors.
Huang T.-W.,Chung Gung University |
Lin W.-P.,Chung Gung University
Proceedings of 2011 Cross Strait Quad-Regional Radio Science and Wireless Technology Conference, CSQRWC 2011 | Year: 2011
A compact and tunable 1060 nm fiber ring laser based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) which directly connects an ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier (YDFA) with a 70 cm long ytterbium-doped fiber has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Low noise and narrow-linewidth 1060nm fiber ring laser that use ytterbium -doped fiber amplifier and semiconductor optical amplifier as gain medium have over 45 nm wavelength tuning range. The output power can be obtained with the optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) larger than 55 dB and output power of > 3dBm in the operating wavelength range from 1035 to 1080 nm have been achieve for the ring laser. Stable and flat output can be maintained more than one hour with negligible power fluctuations and low relative intensity noise. © 2011 IEEE.
Huang C.-Y.,Chung Gung University |
Hou C.-H.,Chung Gung University |
Lin K.-K.,Chung Gung University |
Lee J.-S.,Chung Gung University |
Yang M.-L.,Chung Gung University
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014
Context: The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. Aims: To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Settings and Design: Prospective study.Materials and Methods: Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children′s daily lifestyles, family members′ myopia and parents′ socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Statistical Analysis Used: Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression.Results: Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P < 0.001). The myopia shift was correlated to axial length change (P = 0.000) but not correlated to height change. Using multiple regression test, near work was the only significant risk factor for myopia progression (P = 0.022). Conclusions: Our study showed that body height increment was correlated to axial length elongation but not to myopia shift in children aged 7-9 years. Genetic factors such as parental myopia and body height had a possible influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression.
PubMed | Chung Gung University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of ophthalmology | Year: 2014
The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing.To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years.Prospective study.Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the childrens daily lifestyles, family members myopia and parents socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period.Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression.Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P < 0.001). The myopia shift was correlated to axial length change (P = 0.000) but not correlated to height change. Using multiple regression test, near work was the only significant risk factor for myopia progression (P = 0.022).Our study showed that body height increment was correlated to axial length elongation but not to myopia shift in children aged 7-9 years. Genetic factors such as parental myopia and body height had a possible influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression.