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Chuncheon, South Korea

Choi J.-S.,Hallym University | Bae J.I.-Y.,Hallym University | Kim D.S.,Hallym University | Li J.,Hallym University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis accompanying lipidladen cell appearance, inflammatory responses, and vascular dysfunction. This study examined the potentials of polyphenol quercitrin to inhibit oxLDL induction of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and CD36 involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). J774A1 murine macrophages were cultured with 10 μ/mL Cu 2+-OxLDL for various times in the presence of 1-10 μmol/L quercitrin. Cu2+-OxLDL at the given concentration facilitated macrophage proliferation and enhanced oxLDL uptake. Quercitrin dampened oxLDL uptake and lipid accumulation elevated in macrophages exposed to oxLDL. Western blot analysis revealed that 10 μg/mL oxLDL upregulated expression of SR-A and CD36, which was rapidly abolished at the transcriptional levels by 10μmol/L quercitrin within 4 h. Quercitrin diminished production of proinflammatory and proatherogenic vascular endothelial growth factor that augmented through the oxLDL binding to CD36. Similarly, quercitrin repressed expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 involved in monocyte trafficking and macropahage migration. In addition, quercitrin attenuated oxLDLinduced transcriptional activation of PPARy leading to CD36 induction. Furthermore, quercitrin alleviated macrophage uptake of oxLDL through interfering with PKC-PPAR signaling cascades. These results demonstrate that quercitrin blocked oxLDL uptake, cholesterol influx and lipid-laden foam cell formation through inhibiting induction of SR and VEGF linked to PKCα-PPARγ-responsive pathways. Therefore, quercitrin may be an antiatherogenic agent blocking foam cell formation pertaining to induction of SR and VEGF. © 2009 American Chemical Society. Source

Bae J.-Y.,Hallym University | Choi J.-S.,Hallym University | Kang S.-W.,Hallym University | Lee Y.-J.,Chuncheon Bioindustry Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology

Ellagic acid, a polyphenol compound present in berries and pomegranate, has received attention as an agent that may have potential bioactivities preventing chronic diseases. This study examined photoprotective effects of ellagic acid on collagen breakdown and inflammatory responses in UV (ultraviolet)-B irradiated human skin cells and hairless mice. Ellagic acid attenuated the UV-B-induced toxicity of HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. Non-toxic ellagic acid markedly prevented collagen degradation by blocking matrix metalloproteinase production in UV-B-exposed fibroblasts. Anti-wrinkle activity of ellagic acid was further investigated in hairless mice exposed to UV-B, in which it attenuated UV-B-triggered skin wrinkle formation and epidermal thickening. Topical application of 10 μmol/l ellagic acid diminished production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and blocked infiltration of inflammatory macrophages in the integuments of SKH-1 hairless mice exposed to UV-B for 8 weeks. In addition, this compound mitigated inflammatory intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes and photoaged mouse epidermis. These results demonstrate that ellagic acid prevented collagen destruction and inflammatory responses caused by UV-B. Therefore, dietary and pharmacological interventions with berries rich in ellagic acid may be promising treatment strategies interrupting skin wrinkle and inflammation associated with chronic UV exposure leading to photoageing. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Surayot U.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Wang J.,Northwest University, China | Seesuriyachan P.,Chiang Mai University | Kuntiya A.,Chiang Mai University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) obtained from the culture medium of Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 were investigated to determine their molecular characteristics and the effect of molecular weight (Mw) on immunomodulatory activity. The EPS mainly consisted of carbohydrates (81.9±2.4%) with only one type of monosaccharide, D-glucose, which was mostly connected by α-(1→6) glycosidic linkages. The EPS itself was unable to stimulate RAW264.7 cells to produce pro-inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines. However, considerable stimulation of RAW264.7 cells was observed by the low Mw of EPSs having Mw values≤70×103g/mol. The partially hydrolyzed EPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells to induce considerable NO and various cytokine production such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 via up-regulation of their mRNA expression. In addition, the degradation Iκ-B and the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) were facilitated by BW-30 and MW-40, suggesting that the partially hydrolyzed EPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells through the activation of NF-κB and JNK pathways. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kang S.-W.,Hallym University | Kim M.S.,Hallym University | Kim H.-S.,Hallym University | Lee Y.-J.,Chuncheon Bioindustry Foundation | Kang Y.-H.,Hallym University
International Journal of Molecular Medicine

The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play critical roles in intimal thickening and neointimal hyperplasia in early-phase atherosclerosis. This study tested whether wild grape extract (WGE) suppressed the proliferation and migration of human aortic SMCs induced by neighboring macrophages. Cellular expression of fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and secretion of collagen IV and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 were determined in SMCs exposed to THP-1-differentiated macrophage-conditioned media. Proliferation was enhanced in SMCs exposed to macrophage-conditioned media collected during the early stage of differentiation, which was attenuated by treatment with ≥10 μg/ml WGE. Increased secretion of CTGF and collagen IV macrophage-conditioned media was suppressed in WGE-supplemented SMCs. TGF-β1-promoted production of CTGF and collagen IV was suppressed by blocking TGF-β receptors of R1 and R2 in SMCs. WGE repressed macrophage-conditioned media-upregulated MMP-2 secretion, indicating that WGE had an ability to encumber plaque rupture within atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, ≥1 μg/ml WGE ameliorated the migration of SMCs promoted by neighboring macrophages. These results demonstrate that WGE retarded neointimal hyperplasia and thickening within atherosclerotic plaques largely comprising of macrophages and SMCs. Therefore, WGE may be developed as an anti-proliferative and anti-migratory agent targeting SMCs in the proximity of newly differentiated and resident macrophages. Source

Kim J.-L.,Hallym University | Li H.M.,Hallym University | Kim Y.-H.,Hallym University | Lee Y.-J.,Chuncheon Bioindustry Foundation | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine

Bone integrity is maintained through a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Imbalance of the process results in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. This study investigated the yellow flag iris extract (YFIE) and revealed its anti-osteoporotic effects in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 mouse cells and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. When osteoblasts were treated with 1-20 μg/ml YFIE in an osteogenic medium, the bone nodule formation by calcium deposits was markedly enhanced during differentiation. Consistently, YFIE stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen type I secretion with a substantial effect on osteoblast proliferation. On the other hand, RAW 264.7 macrophages were pre-incubated with 1-20 μg/ml YFIE for 5 days in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Non-toxic YFIE markedly attenuated the differentiation of macrophages to multi-nucleated osteoclasts. YFIE diminished RANKL-elevated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and bone resorption. In addition, the YFIE treatment retarded RANKL-induced cathepsin K production and carbonic anhydrase II expression, both of which are involved in bone resorption. Therefore, YFIE potentially posesses therapeutic agents that may prevent osteoporosis through promoting bone formation and reducing bone resorption. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine. Source

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