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Tkachenko E.A.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Morozov V.G.,Samara State Medical University | Yunicheva Y.V.,Anti Plague Stations | Pilikova O.M.,Anti Plague Stations | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.


Akhmadishina L.V.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Kovalev E.V.,Human Health Control Service of Rostov Region | Nenadskaya S.A.,Human Health Control Service of Rostov Region | Ivanova O.E.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Lukashev A.N.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Seventy-eight cases of enterovirus infection, including 25 neuroinfections, occurred in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, during May–June 2013. The outbreak was caused by an enterovirus A type 71 (EV-A71) subgenotype C4 lineage that spread to neighboring countries from China ≈3 years earlier. Enterovirus-associated neuroinfection may emerge in areas with a preceding background circulation of EV-A71 with apparently asymptomatic infection. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.


Krasota A.,Moscow State University | Loginovskih N.,Hygienic and Epidemiological Center in the Omsk Region | Ivanova O.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Lipskaya G.,Moscow State University
Viruses | Year: 2016

Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Gambaryan A.S.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Matrosovich M.N.,University of Marburg
Biochemistry (Moscow) | Year: 2015

Wild ducks serve as the primary host for numerous and various influenza type A viruses. Occasionally, viruses from this reservoir can be transferred to other host species and cause outbreaks of influenza in fowl, swine, and horses, as well as result in novel human pandemics. Cellular tropism and range of susceptible host species are determined by interaction between virus and receptor molecules on cells. Here we discuss modern data regarding molecular features underlying interactions of influenza viruses with cellular receptors as well as a role for receptor specificity in interspecies transmission. By analyzing the earliest available pandemic influenza viruses (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), we found that hemagglutinin reconfigured to recognize 2-6 sialic acid-containing receptors in the human upper airway tract together with altered enzymatic activity of neuraminidase necessary for maintaining functional balance with hemagglutinin are responsible for effective spread of influenza viruses in human populations. Resistance to low pH also contributes to this. Thus, a combination of such parameters makes it possible that influenza viruses give rise to novel pandemics. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Drexler J.F.,University of Bonn | Baumgarte S.,Institute of Hygiene and the Environment | Luna L.K.S.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Eschbach-Bludau M.,University of Bonn | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32×10 12 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2.0%) of 499 outpatients sampled in northern Germany, 2004. These data substantiate Aichi virus pathogenicity in humans.


Drexler J.F.,University of Bonn | Seelen A.,University of Bonn | Corman V.M.,University of Bonn | Tateno A.F.,University of Bonn | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2012

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis in tropical and temperate climates. Tropical genotypes 1 and 2 are associated with food-borne and waterborne transmission. Zoonotic reservoirs (mainly pigs, wild boar, and deer) are considered for genotypes 3 and 4, which exist in temperate climates. In view of the association of several zoonotic viruses with bats, we analyzed 3,869 bat specimens from 85 different species and from five continents for hepevirus RNA. HEVs were detected in African, Central American, and European bats, forming a novel phylogenetic clade in the family Hepeviridae. Bat hepeviruses were highly diversified and comparable to human HEV in sequence variation. No evidence for the transmission of bat hepeviruses to humans was found in over 90,000 human blood donations and individual patient sera. Full-genome analysis of one representative virus confirmed formal classification within the family Hepeviridae. Sequence-and distance-based taxonomic evaluations suggested that bat hepeviruses constitute a distinct genus within the family Hepeviridae and that at least three other genera comprising human, rodent, and avian hepeviruses can be designated. This may imply that hepeviruses invaded mammalian hosts nonrecently and underwent speciation according to their host restrictions. Human HEV-related viruses in farmed and peridomestic animals might represent secondary acquisitions of human viruses, rather than animal precursors causally involved in the evolution of human HEV. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Akhmadishina L.V.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Eremeeva T.P.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Trotsenko O.E.,Khabarovsk Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology | Ivanova O.E.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging human pathogen causing massive epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications in Asia. EV71 also circulates in Europe, however it does not cause large outbreaks. The reason for distinct epidemiological patterns of EV71 infection in Europe and Asia and the risk of EV71 epidemic in Europe and Russia remain unknown. Seroepidemiology of EV71 and molecular epidemiology of occasional EV71 isolates were studied to explore circulation of EV71 in Russia. In six regions of Russian Federation, seroprevalence of EV71 in sera collected in 2008 ranged from 5% to 20% in children aged 1-2 years and from 19% to 83% in children aged 3-5 years. The seroprevalence among elder children was significantly higher (41-83% vs. 19-27%) in Asian regions of Russia. EV71 strains identified in Russia in 2001-2011 belonged to subtypes C1 and C2, while genotype C4 that was causing epidemics in Asia since 1998 emerged in 2009 and became dominant in 2013. © 2014 Akhmadishina et al.


PubMed | Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides and Russian Academy of Sciences
Type: | Journal: Journal of medical virology | Year: 2016

The study Dose-dependent antiviral activity of released-active form of antibodies to interferon-gamma against influenza A/California/07/09(H1N1) in murine model [Don et al., 2016] recently published in Journal of Medical Virology raises a number of concerns. We discuss these concerns in detail. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Korotkov Y.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Kozlova T.,Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology of the Tula Reg | Kozlovskaya L.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2015

Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) L. transmit a wide variety of pathogens to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Understanding of the epidemiology of tick-borne infections requires basic knowledge of the regional and local factors influencing tick population dynamics. The present study describes the results of monitoring of a questing I. ricinus population, conducted over 35years (1977-2011) in the eastern, poorly studied part of its range (Russia, Tula region). We have found that the multiannual average abundance of ticks is small and varies depending on the biotope and degree of urban transformation. Tick abundance for the first 14years of observations (1977-1990) was at the lower limit of the sensitivity of our methods throughout the study area (0.1-0.9 specimens per 1-km transect). In the following 21years (1991-2011), a manifold increase in abundance was observed, which reached 18.1±1.8 individuals per 1-km transect in moist floodplain terraces, and 4.8±0.9 in xerophylic hill woods. Long-term growth of tick abundance occurred in spite of a relatively constant abundance of small mammals and only minor fluctuations in the abundance of large wild animals. Climate and anthropogenic changes appear to be the main contributors to increased abundance of the tick. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.


PubMed | Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

6,217 sera samples collected from volunteers in six epidemiologically different regions of Russia were tested for serological and molecular markers of HBV infection. A mathematical model developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was used to estimate the effect of vaccination and birth dose coverage on the incidence of HB and adverse outcomes of infection.Prevalence of HBsAg in the study population varied from 1.2% to 8.2%; anti-HBc detection rates were 13.0-46.2%. HBsAg detection rates in epidemiologically significant cohorts were 0.6-10.5% in women of childbearing age; 0-2.4% in children 5 years old; 1.9-8.1% in adults 30 years old. Mathematical modeling demonstrated that the current 96.1-99.6% level of birth dose coverage increased the effectiveness of vaccination 10-21 times compared to 50% and 0% birth dose coverage scenarios. HBV DNA was detected in 63 sera samples. The frequency of amino acid substitutions in HBsAg was 38% (24/63). Only in 3% (2/63) the mutations were within the a-determinant of HBsAg (M133T and G145S, one case each). None of the identified mutations eluded HBsAg detection, since all these samples tested positive for HBsAg by commercial ELISA.Despite a significant decline in acute HB incidence after the introduction of universal vaccination, many undiagnosed potential sources of infection remain. Low prevalence of HBV immune escape variants is a favorable predictor of vaccine effectiveness in the future.

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