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Krasota A.,Moscow State University | Loginovskih N.,Hygienic and Epidemiological Center in the Omsk Region | Ivanova O.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Lipskaya G.,Moscow State University

Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Drexler J.F.,University of Bonn | Gloza-Rausch F.,University of Bonn | Gloza-Rausch F.,Center for Bat Protection and Information | Glende J.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Virology

Bats may host emerging viruses, including coronaviruses (CoV). We conducted an evaluation of CoV in rhinolophid and vespertilionid bat species common in Europe. Rhinolophids carried severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related CoV at high frequencies and concentrations (26% of animals are positive; up to 2.4 × 108 copies per gram of feces), as well as two Alphacoronavirus clades, one novel and one related to the HKU2 clade. All three clades present in Miniopterus bats in China (HKU7, HKU8, and 1A related) were also present in European Miniopterus bats. An additional novel Alphacoronavirus clade (bat CoV [BtCoV]/BNM98-30) was detected in Nyctalus leisleri. A CoV grouping criterion was developed by comparing amino acid identities across an 816-bp fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of all accepted mammalian CoV species (RdRp-based grouping units [RGU]). Criteria for defining separate RGU in mammalian CoV were a >4.8% amino acid distance for alphacoronaviruses and a >6.3% distance for betacoronaviruses. All the above-mentioned novel clades represented independent RGU. Strict associations between CoV RGU and host bat genera were confirmed for six independent RGU represented simultaneously in China and Europe. A SARS-related virus (BtCoV/BM48-31/Bulgaria/2008) from a Rhinolophus blasii (Rhi bla) bat was fully sequenced. It is predicted that proteins 3b and 6 were highly divergent from those proteins in all known SARS-related CoV. Open reading frame 8 (ORF8) was surprisingly absent. Surface expression of spike and staining with sera of SARS survivors suggested low antigenic overlap with SARS CoV. However, the receptor binding domain of SARS CoV showed higher similarity with that of BtCoV/BM48-31/Bulgaria/2008 than with that of any Chinese bat-borne CoV. Critical spike domains 472 and 487 were identical and similar, respectively. This study underlines the importance of assessments of the zoonotic potential of widely distributed bat-borne CoV. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Gambaryan A.S.,Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides | Matrosovich M.N.,University of Marburg
Biochemistry (Moscow)

Wild ducks serve as the primary host for numerous and various influenza type A viruses. Occasionally, viruses from this reservoir can be transferred to other host species and cause outbreaks of influenza in fowl, swine, and horses, as well as result in novel human pandemics. Cellular tropism and range of susceptible host species are determined by interaction between virus and receptor molecules on cells. Here we discuss modern data regarding molecular features underlying interactions of influenza viruses with cellular receptors as well as a role for receptor specificity in interspecies transmission. By analyzing the earliest available pandemic influenza viruses (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), we found that hemagglutinin reconfigured to recognize 2-6 sialic acid-containing receptors in the human upper airway tract together with altered enzymatic activity of neuraminidase necessary for maintaining functional balance with hemagglutinin are responsible for effective spread of influenza viruses in human populations. Resistance to low pH also contributes to this. Thus, a combination of such parameters makes it possible that influenza viruses give rise to novel pandemics. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Grard G.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Drexler J.F.,These authors contributed equally to this work | Drexler J.F.,University of Bonn | Lekana-Douki S.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | And 7 more authors.

An outbreak of flaccid paralysis syndrome in adults is ongoing in Congo. Molecular analysis of faecal, throat and cerebrospinal samples identified wild type 1 poliovirus and an additional enterovirus C strain related to enterovirus 109 as the cause. As of 22 November, the cumulative number of cases was 409, of which 169 (41.3%) were fatal. This is one of the largest wild type 1 poliovirus outbreaks ever described associated with an unusually high case fatality rate. Source

Drexler J.F.,University of Bonn | Baumgarte S.,Institute of Hygiene and the Environment | Luna L.K.S.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Eschbach-Bludau M.,University of Bonn | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32×10 12 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2.0%) of 499 outpatients sampled in northern Germany, 2004. These data substantiate Aichi virus pathogenicity in humans. Source

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